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    't Hooft suppression and holographic entropy

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    Recent works have related the bulk first law of black hole mechanics to the first law of entanglement in a dual CFT. These are first order relations, and receive corrections for finite changes. In particular, the latter is naively expected to be accurate only for small changes in the quantum state. But when Newton's constant is small relative to the AdS scale, the former holds to good approximation even for classical perturbations that contain many quanta. This suggests that -- for appropriate states -- corrections to the first law of entanglement are suppressed by powers of NN in CFTs whose correlators satisfy 't Hooft large-NN power counting. We take first steps toward verifying that this is so by studying the large-NN structure of the entropy of spatial regions for a class of CFT states motivated by those created from the vacuum by acting with real-time single-trace sources. We show that 1/N1/N counting matches bulk predictions, though we require the effect of the source on the modular hamiltonian to be non-singular. The magnitude of our sources is ϵN\epsilon N with ϵ\epsilon fixed-but-small as NN\rightarrow \infty. Our results also provide a perturbative derivation -- without relying on the replica trick -- of the subleading Faulkner-Lewkowycz-Maldacena correction to the Ryu-Takayagi and Hubeny-Rangamani-Takayanagi conjectures at all orders in 1/N1/N.Comment: 24 pages, no figures. v2: minor changes to agree with published versio
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