2 research outputs found

    Exploring non-pharmacological methods for pre-operative pain management

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    The management of pain is an essential aspect of surgical care, and pain levels in post-operative patients vary case by case. Treating postoperative pain is crucial as it leads to better outcomes and reduces risk of long term pain. While post-operative analgesics has been the mainstay of treatment, this mini-review explores an emerging concept which is preoperative pain management, with promising potential. Such interventions include educating patients on the expected pain outcomes and available pain medications. Non-pharmacological methods such as relaxation exercises have also proven to be effective after abdominal surgery, and educating patients on the existence of such methods pre-operatively encourages them to make use of available therapies. A major area of importance is the pre-operative psychological and emotional wellbeing of patients, as it is a strong predictor of pain and pain prognosis. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy can be effectively used to tackle preoperative anxiety and reduce pain levels. Hypnosis is another developing modality for decreasing stress. Lastly, long term pre-operative opioid use has been linked with higher pain scores and longer pain duration. This provides the basis on which pre-operative opioid weaning can lead to favorable post-operative pain outcomes. While many of these methods have not been experimented on recipients of abdominal surgery in specific, it still paves the path for newer pain control strategies that can eventually be adopted for visceral surgery patients. This review points the reader and researchers to new and developing areas that hold the potential to revolutionize current established pain management guidelines. </p

    The association between stress, emotional states, and tinnitus: a mini-review

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    Extensive literature supporting the view of tinnitus induced stress in patients is available. However, limited evidence has been produced studying the opposite, that is, does stress cause tinnitus? The hypothalamus pituitary adrenal axis, one of the main neuroendocrine systems involved in stress response, is commonly disturbed in tinnitus patients. Patients with chronic tinnitus have been shown to develop abnormal responses to psycho-social stress, where the hypothalamus pituitary adrenal axis response is weaker and delayed, suggesting chronic stress contributes to the development of chronic tinnitus. The sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system also plays a major role in stress response and its chronic hyperactivity seems to be involved in developing tinnitus. Psycho-social stress has been shown to share the same probability of developing tinnitus as occupational noise and contributes to worsening tinnitus. Additionally, exposure to high stress levels and occupational noise doubles the likelihood of developing tinnitus. Interestingly, short-term stress has been shown to protect the cochlea in animals, but chronic stress exposure has negative consequences. Emotional stress also worsens pre-existing tinnitus and is identified as an important indicator of tinnitus severity. Although there is limited body of literature, stress does seem to play a vital role in the development of tinnitus. This review aims to highlight the association between stress, emotional states, and the development of tinnitus while also addressing the neural and hormonal pathways involved. </p