30 research outputs found

    Physiological Adaptions to Acute Hypoxia

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    When tissues are insufficiently supplied with oxygen, the environment is said to be hypoxic. Acute (exposures to) hypoxia can occur occupationally, within the scope of training and competitions or under pathological conditions. The increasing interest in acute exposure to altitude for training and research purposes makes it more important than ever to understand the physiological processes that occur under hypoxic conditions. Therefore, the scope of this chapter is to describe the main types of hypoxia on the oxygen cascade, to summarize the physiological consequences of acute hypoxia on the three main areas and to highlight the clinical consequences of acute hypoxia exposures for healthcare practitioners

    The Comparative Effect of Different Timings of Whole Body Cryotherapy Treatment With Cold Water Immersion for Post-Exercise Recovery

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    Despite several established benefits of Whole Body Cryotherapy (WBC) for post-exercise recovery, there is a scarcity of research which has identified the optimum WBC protocol for this purpose. This study investigated the influence of WBC treatment timing on physiological and functional responses following a downhill running bout. An additional purpose was to compare such responses with those following cold water immersion (CWI), since there is no clear consensus as to which cold modality is more effective for supporting athletic recovery. Thirty-three male participants (mean ± SD age 37.0 ± 13.3 years, height 1.76 ± 0.07 m, body mass 79.5 ± 13.7 kg) completed a 30 min downhill run (15% gradient) at 60% VO(2) max and were then allocated into one of four recovery groups: WBC1 (n = 9) and WBC4 (n = 8) underwent cryotherapy (3 min, −120°C) 1 and 4 h post-run, respectively; CWI (n = 8) participants were immersed in cold water (10 min, 15°C) up to the waist 1 h post-run and control (CON, n = 8) participants passively recovered in a controlled environment (20°C). Maximal isometric leg muscle torque was assessed pre and 24 h post-run. Blood creatine kinase (CK), muscle soreness, femoral artery blood flow, plasma IL-6 and sleep were also assessed pre and post-treatment. There were significant decreases in muscle torque for WBC4 (10.9%, p = 0.04) and CON (11.3% p = 0.00) and no significant decreases for WBC1 (5.6%, p = 0.06) and CWI (5.1%, p = 0.15). There were no significant differences between groups in muscle soreness, CK, IL-6 or sleep. Femoral artery blood flow significantly decreased in CWI (p = 0.02), but did not differ in other groups. WBC treatments within an hour may be preferable for muscle strength recovery compared to delayed treatments; however WBC appears to be no more effective than CWI. Neither cold intervention had an impact on inflammation or sleep

    Intramuscular Temperature Changes in the Quadriceps Femoris Muscle After Post-Exercise Cold-Water Immersion (10°C for 10 min): A Systematic Review With Meta-Analysis

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    Post-exercise cold-water immersion (CWI) is a widely accepted recovery strategy for maintaining physical performance output. However, existing review articles about the effects of CWI commonly pool data from very heterogenous study designs and thus, do rarely differentiate between different muscles, different CWI-protocols (duration, temperature, etc.), different forms of activating the muscles before CWI, and different thickness of the subcutaneous adipose tissue. This systematic review therefore aimed to investigate the effects of one particular post-exercise CWI protocol (10°C for 10 min) on intramuscular temperature changes in the quadriceps femoris muscle while accounting for skinfold thickness. An electronic search was conducted on PubMed, LIVIVO, Cochrane Library, and PEDro databases. Pooled data on intramuscular temperature changes were plotted with respect to intramuscular depth to visualize the influence of skinfold thickness. Spearman's rho (rs) was used to assess a possible linear association between skinfold thickness and intramuscular temperature changes. A meta-analysis was performed to investigate the effect of CWI on pre-post intramuscular temperature for each measurement depth. A total of six articles met the inclusion criteria. Maximum intramuscular temperature reduction was 6.40°C with skinfold thickness of 6.50 mm at a depth of 1 cm, 4.50°C with skinfold thickness of 11.00 mm at a depth of 2 cm, and only 1.61°C with skinfold thickness of 10.79 mm at a depth of 3 cm. However, no significant correlations between skinfold thickness and intramuscular temperature reductions were observed at a depth of 1 cm (r s = 0.0), at 2 cm (r s = -0.8) and at 3 cm (r s = -0.5; all p > 0.05). The CWI protocol resulted in significant temperature reductions in the muscle tissue layers at 1 cm (d = -1.92 [95% CI: -3.01 to -0.83] and 2 cm (d = -1.63 [95% CI: -2.20 to -1.06]) but not at 3 cm (p < 0.05). Skinfold thickness and thus, subcutaneous adipose tissue, seems to influence temperature reductions in the muscle tissue only to a small degree. These findings might be useful for practitioners as they demonstrate different intramuscular temperature reductions after a specific post-exercise CWI protocol (10°C for 10 min) in the quadriceps femoris muscle. Keywords: adipose tissue; cold-water immersion; exercise; intramuscular temperature; metabolism

    Changes in balance coordination and transfer to an unlearned balance task after slackline training: a self-organizing map analysis

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    How humans maintain balance and change postural control due to age, injury, immobility or training is one of the basic questions in motor control. One of the problems in understanding postural control is the large set of degrees of freedom in the human motor system. Therefore, a self-organizing map (SOM), a type of artificial neural network, was used in the present study to extract and visualize information about high-dimensional balance strategies before and after a 6-week slackline training intervention. Thirteen subjects performed a flamingo and slackline balance task before and after the training while full body kinematics were measured. Range of motion, velocity and frequency of the center of mass and joint angles from the pelvis, trunk and lower leg (45 variables) were calculated and subsequently analyzed with an SOM. Subjects increased their standing time significantly on the flamingo (average +2.93 s, Cohen’s d = 1.04) and slackline (+9.55 s, d = 3.28) tasks, but the effect size was more than three times larger in the slackline. The SOM analysis, followed by a k- means clustering and marginal homogeneity test, showed that the balance coordination pattern was significantly different between pre- and post-test for the slackline task only (χ2 = 82.247; p 0.001). The shift in balance coordination on the slackline could be characterized by an increase in range of motion and a decrease in velocity and frequency in nearly all degrees of freedom simultaneously. The observation of low transfer of coordination strategies to the flamingo task adds further evidence for the task-specificity principle of balance training, meaning that slackline training alone will be insufficient to increase postural control in other challenging situations

    Local Heat Applications as a Treatment of Physical and Functional Parameters in Acute and Chronic Musculoskeletal Disorders or Pain

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    Objectives: The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effectiveness of local heat applications (LHAs) in individuals with acute or chronic musculoskeletal disorders. Data sources: An electronic search was conducted on MEDLINE, Cochrane Controlled Register of Trials, Current Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and the Physiotherapy Evidence databases up to December 2019. Study selection: Studies incorporating adults with any kind of musculoskeletal issues treated by LHA compared with any treatment other than heat were included. Data extraction: Two authors independently performed the methodological quality assessment using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. Data synthesis: LHA showed beneficial immediate effects to reduce pain vs no treatment (P<.001), standard therapy (P=.020), pharmacologic therapy (P<.001), and placebo/sham (P=.044). Physical function was restored after LHA compared with no treatment (P=.025) and standard therapy (P=.006), whereas disability improved directly after LHA compared with pharmacologic therapy (P=.003) and placebo/sham (P<.028). Quality of life was improved directly after LHA treatment compared with exercise therapy (P<.021). Range of motion increased and stiffness decreased after LHA treatment compared with pharmacologic therapy (P=.009, P<.001) and placebo/sham (P<.001, P=.023). The immediate superior effects of LHA on muscular strength could be observed compared with no treatment (P<.001), cold (P<.001), and placebo/sham (P=.023). Conclusions: Individuals with acute musculoskeletal disorders might benefit from using LHA as an adjunct therapy. However, the studies included in this meta-analysis demonstrated a high heterogeneity and mostly an unclear risk of bias. Keywords: Hot temperature; Meta-analysis; Musculoskeletal diseases; Pain; Physical therapy modalities; Quality of life; Rehabilitation; Review

    Physical Management of Scar Tissue: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

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    Objective: The aim of this systematic review with meta-analysis was to describe the status on the effects of physical scar treatments on pain, pigmentation, pliability, pruritus, scar thickening, and surface area. Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Subjects: Adults with any kind of scar tissue. Interventions: Physical scar management versus control or no scar management. Outcome measures: Pain, pigmentation, pliability, pruritus, surface area, scar thickness. Results: The overall results revealed that physical scar management is beneficial compared with the control treatment regarding the management of pain (p = 0.012), pruritus (p < 0.001), pigmentation (p = 0.010), pliability (p < 0.001), surface area (p < 0.001), and thickness (p = 0.022) of scar tissue in adults. The observed risk of bias was high for blinding of participants and personnel (47%) and low for other bias (100%). Conclusions: Physical scar management demonstrates moderate-to-strong effects on improvement of scar issues as related to signs and symptoms. These results show the importance of specific physical management of scar tissue

    A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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    The aim of this review and meta-analysis was to critically determine the possible effects of different cooling applications, compared to non-cooling, passive post-exercise strategies, on recovery characteristics after various, exhaustive exercise protocols up to 96 hours (hrs). A total of n = 36 articles were processed in this study. To establish the research question, the PICO-model, according to the PRISMA guidelines was used. The Cochrane’s risk of bias tool, which was used for the quality assessment, demonstrated a high risk of performance bias and detection bias. Meta-analyses of subjective characteristics, such as delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and objective characteristics like blood plasma markers and blood plasma cytokines, were performed. Pooled data from 27 articles revealed, that cooling and especially cold water immersions affected the symptoms of DOMS significantly, compared to the control conditions after 24 hrs recovery, with a standardized mean difference (Hedges’ g) of -0.75 with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of -1.20 to -0.30. This effect remained significant after 48 hrs (Hedges’ g: -0.73, 95% CI: -1.20 to -0.26) and 96 hrs (Hedges’ g: -0.71, 95% CI: -1.10 to -0.33). A significant difference in lowering the symptoms of RPE could only be observed after 24 hrs of recovery, favouring cooling compared to the control conditions (Hedges’ g: -0.95, 95% CI: -1.89 to -0.00). There was no evidence, that cooling affects any objective recovery variable in a significant way during a 96 hrs recovery perio
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