7,006 research outputs found

    A roadmap to achieve pharmacological precision medicine in diabetes

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    Current pharmacological treatment of diabetes is largely algorithmic. Other than for cardiovascular disease or renal disease, where sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors and/or glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists are indicated, the choice of treatment is based upon overall risks of harm or side effect and cost, and not on probable benefit. Here we argue that a more precise approach to treatment choice is necessary to maximise benefit and minimise harm from existing diabetes therapies. We propose a roadmap to achieve precision medicine as standard of care, to discuss current progress in relation to monogenic diabetes and type 2 diabetes, and to determine what additional work is required. The first step is to identify robust and reliable genetic predictors of response, recognising that genotype is static over time and provides the skeleton upon which modifiers such as clinical phenotype and metabolic biomarkers can be overlaid. The second step is to identify these metabolic biomarkers (e.g. beta cell function, insulin sensitivity, BMI, liver fat, metabolite profile), which capture the metabolic state at the point of prescribing and may have a large impact on drug response. Third, we need to show that predictions that utilise these genetic and metabolic biomarkers improve therapeutic outcomes for patients, and fourth, that this is cost-effective. Finally, these biomarkers and prediction models need to be embedded in clinical care systems to enable effective and equitable clinical implementation. Whilst this roadmap is largely complete for monogenic diabetes, we still have considerable work to do to implement this for type 2 diabetes. Increasing collaborations, including with industry, and access to clinical trial data should enable progress to implementation of precision treatment in type 2 diabetes in the near future. GRAPHICAL ABSTRACT: [Image: see text] SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains a slideset of the figures for download, which is available at 10.1007/s00125-022-05732-3

    On Attitudes Toward Spanish Varieties: A Bilingual Perspective

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    This study explores the attitudes of 25 English-Spanish bilingual speakers from Tucson (Arizona) towards their own variety and compares them with their attitudes toward monolingual varieties of Mexican (from Hermosillo) and Peninsular Spanish (from Murcia and Madrid). Our analysis points to a clear influence of the standard language ideology (MILROY, 2001) on shaping these attitudes, escalated by a tendency among bilinguals in diglossic societies to feel insecure about their own variety as a minority language, or towards a feeling of linguistic self-hatred. - Este estudo explora as atitudes de 25 falantes bilĂ­ngues de espanhol e inglĂȘs de Tucson (Arizona) com relação Ă  sua prĂłpria variedade linguĂ­stica, comparando essas atitudes em relação ao espanhol de Hermosillo (MĂ©xico) e a duas variedades peninsulares: a espanhola de MĂșrcia e a de Madrid. Nossa anĂĄlise mostra uma clara influĂȘncia da ideologia da lĂ­ngua padrĂŁo (MILROY, 2001) em determinar essas atitudes, agravada pela tendĂȘncia de os falantes bilĂ­ngues de sociedades diglĂłssicas se sentirem inseguros quanto Ă  sua prĂłpria variedade como uma lĂ­ngua minoritĂĄria, ou relacionada a um sentimento de auto-Ăłdio linguĂ­stico

    Genome-Wide Association with Diabetes-Related Traits in the Framingham Heart Study

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    BACKGROUND: Susceptibility to type 2 diabetes may be conferred by genetic variants having modest effects on risk. Genome-wide fixed marker arrays offer a novel approach to detect these variants. METHODS: We used the Affymetrix 100K SNP array in 1,087 Framingham Offspring Study family members to examine genetic associations with three diabetes-related quantitative glucose traits (fasting plasma glucose (FPG), hemoglobin A1c, 28-yr time-averaged FPG (tFPG)), three insulin traits (fasting insulin, HOMA-insulin resistance, and 0–120 min insulin sensitivity index); and with risk for diabetes. We used additive generalized estimating equations (GEE) and family-based association test (FBAT) models to test associations of SNP genotypes with sex-age-age2-adjusted residual trait values, and Cox survival models to test incident diabetes. RESULTS: We found 415 SNPs associated (at p 1%) 100K SNPs in LD (r2 > 0.05) with ABCC8 A1369S (rs757110), KCNJ11 E23K (rs5219), or SNPs in CAPN10 or HNFa. PPARG P12A (rs1801282) was not significantly associated with diabetes or related traits. CONCLUSION: Framingham 100K SNP data is a resource for association tests of known and novel genes with diabetes and related traits posted at. Framingham 100K data replicate the TCF7L2 association with diabetes.National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Framingham Heart Study (N01-HC-25195); National Institutes of Health National Center for Research Resources Shared Instrumentation grant (1S10RR163736-01A1); National Center for Research Resources General Clinical Research Center (M01-RR-01066); American Diabetes Association Career Developement Award; GlaxoSmithKline; Merck; Lilly; National Institutes of Health Research Career Award (K23 DK659678-03

    Co-Inoculation of Plant-Growth-Promoting Bacteria Modulates Physiological and Biochemical Responses of Perennial Ryegrass to Water Deficit

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    Perennial ryegrass is a forage commonly used in temperate regions for livestock feeding; however, its yield is affected by reduced biomass production under water deficit. In a previous study, three co-inoculations of beneficial bacteria were selected based on their ability to promote plant growth under reduced water availability. The aim of this work was to elucidate some mechanisms by which the selected bacteria can help improve the response of perennial ryegrass to water deficit. Ryegrass plants were inoculated with each of the co-inoculations (Herbaspirillum sp. AP02 Herbaspirillum sp. AP21; Herbaspirillum sp. AP02–Pseudomonas sp. N7; Herbaspirillum sp. AP21–Azospirillum brasilense D7) and subjected to water deficit for 10 days. Physiological and biochemical measurements were taken 10 days after stress and shortly after rehydration. The results showed that bacteria had a positive effect on shoot biomass production, dissipation of excess energy, and proline and chlorophyll pigments during the days of water deficit (p < 0.05). The leaf water status of the inoculated plants was 12% higher than that of the uninoculated control after rehydration. Two Herbaspirillum strains showed greater potential for use as biofertilizers that help ameliorate the effects of water deficit

    Predictors of diabetes risk in urban and rural areas in Colombia

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    Background: Nutritional habits low in fruits and vegetables and sedentary lifestyle are associated with a higher risk of developing Type 2 Diabetes (T2D). However, it is important to assess differences between urban and rural areas. This study aimed to analyze the associations between the risk of developing T2D and setting in the Colombian north coast in 2017. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 1,005 subjects. Data was collected by interviewing self-identified members of an urban community and a rural-indigenous population. The interaction terms were evaluated as well as the confounders. Then, adjusted binary logistic regressions were used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI). Results: subjects with a high risk of T2D are more likely to belong to the urban setting (OR = 1.908; 95%CI = 1.201-2.01) compared with those with lower T2D after adjusting for age, Body Mass Index (BMI), physical activity, history of high levels of glycemia, and diabetes in relatives. Conclusions: Urban communities are more likely to have T2D compared with rural-indigenous populations. These populations have differences from the cultural context, including personal, and lifestyle factors.Peer reviewe