528 research outputs found

    Rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE) in pancreatic cancer diagnosis. doing more with less

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    Rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE) in pancreatic cancer diagnosis: Doing more with les

    Permissive role for mGlu1 metabotropic glutamate receptors in excitotoxic retinal degeneration

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    Neuroprotection is an unmet need in eye disorders characterized by retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death, such as prematurity-induced retinal degeneration, glaucoma, and age-related macular degeneration. In all these disorders excitotoxicity is a prominent component of neuronal damage, but clinical data discourage the development of NMDA receptor antagonists as neuroprotectants. Here, we show that activation of mGlu1 metabotropic glutamate receptors largely contributes to excitotoxic degeneration of RGCs. Mice at postnatal day 9 were challenged with a toxic dose of monosodium glutamate (MSG, 3g/kg), which caused the death of >70% of Brn-3a+ RGCs. Systemic administration of the mGlu1 receptor negative allosteric modulator (NAM), JNJ16259685 (2.5mg/kg, s.c.), was largely protective against MSG-induced RGC death. This treatment did not cause changes in motor behavior in the pups. We also injected MSG to crv4 mice, which lack mGlu1 receptors because of a recessive mutation of the gene encoding the mGlu1 receptor. MSG did not cause retinal degeneration in crv4 mice, whereas it retained its toxic activity in their wild-type littermates. These findings demonstrate that mGlu1 receptors play a key role in excitotoxic degeneration of RGCs, and encourage the study of mGlu1 receptor NAMs in models of retinal neurodegeneration

    Thyroglobulin measurement in the washout of fine needle aspirates for the diagnosis of suspicious cervical lymph nodes

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    Ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) for suspicious cervical lymph nodes (CLN) is the gold standard technique for the identification of metastases from differentiated thyroid carcinomas. Thyroglobulin protein (Tgp) assay in the washout of needles employed for FNA biopsies (FNAB) has been reported to refine and support FNAC performances, especially in cases of inadequate sampling or cystic lymph nodes. In the present work, we evaluated the usefulness of routine measurement of Tgp in the FNAB washout of suspicious cervical lymph nodes (CLN), and its ability to increase the FNAC accuracy in the diagnosis of metastatic CLN. A case study of 45 CLN with histological diagnosis from 36 patients was analyzed. Histology showed metastases from papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC) in 31 CLN, from anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) in 3 CLN, from medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) in 4 CLN, and metastases from extrathyroidal malignancies in 5 CLN. Two CLN analyzed were found to be non-neoplastic. The overall accuracy of FNAC was 82.9%, and that of Tgp was 91.1%, not statistically different. However, Tgp determination was found essential in 4 cases of metastatic CLN from DTC with inadequate cytology, and in 1 case in which the FNAC provided a false negative result. We demonstrated that FNAC and Tgp assay show similar diagnostic accuracies, and that Tgp measurement may represent the only available information in case of inadequate lymph node sampling or cystic lymph nodes

    A Novel Peptide with Antifungal Activity from Red Swamp Crayfish Procambarus clarkii

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    The defense system of freshwater crayfish Procambarus clarkii as a diversified source of bioactive molecules with antimicrobial properties was studied. Antimicrobial activity of two polypeptideenriched extracts obtained from hemocytes and hemolymph of P. clarkii were assessed against Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis) and Gram negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli) bacteria and toward the yeast Candida albicans. The two peptide fractions showed interesting MIC values (ranging from 11 to 700 g/mL) against all tested pathogens. Polypeptideenriched extracts were further investigated using a high-resolution mass spectrometry and database search and 14 novel peptides were identified. Some peptides and their derivatives were chemically synthesized and tested in vitro against the bacterial and yeast pathogens. The analysis identified a synthetic derivative peptide, which showed an interesting antifungal (MIC and MFC equal to 31.2 g/mL and 62.5 g/mL, respectively) and antibiofilm (BIC50 equal to 23.2 g/mL) activities against Candida albicans and a low toxicity in human cells

    Establishment of an in Vitro Human Blood-Brain Barrier Model Derived from Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells and Comparison to a Porcine Cell-Based System

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    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is responsible for the homeostasis between the cerebral vasculature and the brain and it has a key role in regulating the influx and efflux of substances, in healthy and diseased states. Stem cell technology offers the opportunity to use human brain-specific cells to establish in vitro BBB models. Here, we describe the establishment of a human BBB model in a two-dimensional monolayer culture, derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). This model was characterized by a transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) higher than 2000 ‚Ą¶‚ąôcm2 and associated with negligible paracellular transport. The hiPSC-derived BBB model maintained the functionality of major endothelial transporter proteins and receptors. Some proprietary molecules from our central nervous system (CNS) programs were evaluated revealing comparable permeability in the human model and in the model from primary porcine brain endothelial cells (PBECs)

    Evolution in endoscopic endonasal approach for the management of hypothalamic‚Äďpituitary region metastasis: A single-institution experience

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    IntroductionEndonasal endoscopic surgery has changed the treatment perspectives for different lesions of the hypothalamic‚Äďpituitary region. The metastases of the hypothalamic‚Äďpituitary region represent 0.4% of all intracranial metastatic tumors and account for only 1.8% of surgically managed pituitary lesions. The aim of tshis study is to describe a single-center institutional experience with 13 cases of hypothalamic‚Äďpituitary metastasis focused on presurgical workup, the evolution of the surgical technique, and postsurgical management according to our protocols, showing effects on progression-free and overall survival rates for this relatively uncommon location.Material and MethodsWe retrospectively reviewed the whole series of patients that received the endoscopic endonasal approach at the Division of Neurosurgery at the University of Naples ‚ÄúFederico II‚ÄĚ undergoing surgery from January 1997 to December 2021. We identified 13 cases whose pathology reports revealed a metastatic lesion. Statistical analysis was performed to determine the Kaplan‚ÄďMeier survival function and assess for log-rank differences in survival based on gender, surgical treatment, and postoperative therapy (p-value¬†<¬†0.02*).ResultsThe pathology report disclosed lung adenocarcinoma (six cases, 46%), breast adenocarcinoma (two cases, 15.4%), clear cell renal carcinoma (one case, 7%), melanoma (one case, 7%), colorectal adenocarcinoma (one case, 7%), uterine cervix carcinoma (one case, 7%), and follicular thyroid carcinoma (one case, 7%). A standard endoscopic endonasal approach was performed in 10 patients (76.9%), while an extended endonasal procedure was performed in only three cases (23%). Biopsy was the surgical choice in five patients with infiltrative and invasive lesions and a poor performance status (38%), while in the cases where neurovascular decompression was necessary, a subtotal resection was achieved in five patients (38%) and partial resection in three patients (23%). Recovery of visual field defect was observed in six of seven patients with visual loss (85.7%), improvement of oculomotor nerve palsy occurred in four of seven patients with this defect (57.1%), while the impairment of oculomotor palsy was observed in three patients (42.9%). Visual function was stable in the other patients. The median progression-free survival and overall survival were 14 and 18¬†months, respectively. There were statistically significant differences in PFS and OS in patients who underwent adjuvant radiotherapy (p=0.019 is referred to OS and p=0.017 to PFS, respectively; p-value¬†=¬†0.02).ConclusionsThe endoscopic endonasal approach is a viable approach for the management of hypothalamic‚Äďpituitary metastases as this surgery provides an adequate opportunity to obtain tissue sample and neurovascular decompression, both being crucial for continuing the integrated adjuvant therapy protocols

    Multi-omics data integration provides insights into the post-harvest biology of a long shelf-life tomato landrace

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    In this study we investigated the transcriptome and epigenome dynamics of the tomato fruit during post-harvest in a landrace belonging to a group of tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L.) collectively known as "Piennolo del Vesuvio", all characterized by a long shelf-life. Expression of protein-coding genes and microRNAs as well as DNA methylation patterns and histone modifications were analysed in distinct post-harvest phases. Multi-omics data integration contributed to the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underlying processes leading to long shelf-life. We unveiled global changes in transcriptome and epigenome. DNA methylation increased and the repressive histone mark H3K27me3 was lost as the fruit progressed from red ripe to 150 days post-harvest. Thousands of genes were differentially expressed, about half of which were potentially epi-regulated as they were engaged in at least one epi-mark change in addition to being microRNA targets in ~5% of cases. Down-regulation of the ripening regulator MADS-RIN and of genes involved in ethylene response and cell wall degradation was consistent with the delayed fruit softening. Large-scale epigenome reprogramming that occurred in the fruit during post-harvest likely contributed to delayed fruit senescence

    Auditory cortex hypoperfusion: a metabolic hallmark in Beta Thalassemia

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    Abstract Background Sensorineural hearing loss in beta-thalassemia is common and it is generally associated with iron chelation therapy. However, data are scarce, especially on adult populations, and a possible involvement of the central auditory areas has not been investigated yet. We performed a multicenter cross-sectional audiological and single-center 3Tesla brain perfusion MRI study enrolling 77 transfusion-dependent/non transfusion-dependent adult patients and 56 healthy controls. Pure tone audiometry, demographics, clinical/laboratory and cognitive functioning data were recorded. Results Half of patients (52%) presented with high-frequency hearing deficit, with overt hypoacusia (Pure Tone Average (PTA)‚ÄČ>‚ÄČ25¬†dB) in 35%, irrespective of iron chelation or clinical phenotype. Bilateral voxel clusters of significant relative hypoperfusion were found in the auditory cortex of beta-thalassemia patients, regardless of clinical phenotype. In controls and transfusion-dependent (but not in non-transfusion-dependent) patients, the relative auditory cortex perfusion values increased linearly with age (p‚ÄČ<‚ÄČ0.04). Relative auditory cortex perfusion values showed a significant U-shaped correlation with PTA values among hearing loss patients, and a linear correlation with the full scale intelligence quotient (right side p‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.01, left side p‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.02) with its domain related to communication skills (right side p‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.04, left side p‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.07) in controls but not in beta-thalassemia patients. Audiometric test results did not correlate to cognitive test scores in any subgroup. Conclusions In conclusion, primary auditory cortex perfusion changes are a metabolic hallmark of adult beta-thalassemia, thus suggesting complex remodeling of the hearing function, that occurs regardless of chelation therapy and before clinically manifest hearing loss. The cognitive impact of perfusion changes is intriguing but requires further investigations

    Guidelines for the use and interpretation of diagnostic methods in adult food allergy

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    Food allergy has an increasing prevalence in the general population and in Italy concerns 8 % of people with allergies. The spectrum of its clinical manifestations ranges from mild symptoms up to potentially fatal anaphylactic shock. A number of patients can be diagnosed easily by the use of first- and second-level procedures (history, skin tests and allergen specific IgE). Patients with complex presentation, such as multiple sensitizations and pollen-food syndromes, frequently require a third-level approach including molecular diagnostics, which enables the design of a component-resolved sensitization profile for each patient. The use of such techniques involves specialists' and experts' skills on the issue to appropriately meet the diagnostic and therapeutic needs of patients. Particularly, educational programs for allergists on the use and interpretation of molecular diagnostics are needed
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