727 research outputs found

    Wages, Productivity and Work Intensity in the Great Depression

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    We show that U.S. manufacturing wages during the Great Depression were importantly determined by forces on firms' intensive margins. Short-run changes in work intensity and the longer-term goal of restoring full potential productivity combined to influence real wage growth. By contrast, the external effects of unemployment and replacement rates had much less impact. Empirical work is undertaken against the background of an efficient bargaining model that embraces employment, hours of work and work intensity.

    Labour Force Participation and the Business Cycle: A Comparative Analysis of Europe, Japan and the United States

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    Using OECD data from 1970 until 1995, we estimate systems of labour force participation equations, disaggregated by age and sex, for the United States, Japan, France and Sweden. We simulate the path of participation rates following shocks to GDP and also test for asymmetric responses to shocks occurring in upward and downward phases of the cycle. Our methodology is especially pertinent to the issue of hidden unemployment and the "discouraged worker effect". We find that this effect is essentially a female phenomenon with a particular concentration among 45 to 54 year olds.Participation rates; business cycle; asymmetric responses; discouraged worker effects

    Research practices and support needs of Language and Literature faculty at the University of Utah

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    ReportThis report investigates the research practices and support needs of Language and Literature scholars at the University of Utah

    Pulsed laser deposition for growth of high quality epitaxial garnet films for low threshold waveguide lasers

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    Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) is a mature technique capable of producing extremely high quality epitaxial single crystalline films. We have grown Nd:doped garnet films of GGG (Gd The talk will summarise our progress using conventional (single beam) PLD in thin-film and waveguide growth, using both nanosecond and femtosecond lasers, and also introduce our new directions in tri-beam PLD (three targets, three lasers) for growth of some interesting, complex and perhaps impossible structures, such as Gaussian doping, internal voids and even helically doped structures

    The Late Roman military baths of the Wadi Arabah: a survey of recent archaeological work

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    Abstract – Archaeological investigation over the past two decades at several Late Roman military sites in the Wadi Arabah has revealed a corpus of bathhouses that share a geographically distinct architectural design. Constructed in the late 3rd – early 4th cent. ce during a short-lived period of economic resurgence and revitalization of regional trade, these small Roman military baths can add much to our understanding of the broader socio-economic and historical contexts of Arabia/Palaestina in Late Antiquity. This paper reviews recent work on the Late Roman military baths of the Wadi Arabah and offers new analyses regarding their placement and architectural planning.Résumé – Les recherches archéologiques entreprises depuis une vingtaine d’années sur les sites militaires romains du Wadi Arabah ont mis au jour un corpus de bains qui partagent une même architecture régionale. Construits à la fin du iiie s. - début du ive s. apr. J.-C. lors d’une période de reprise économique et de redynamisation du commerce régional, ces petits bains militaires romains apportent beaucoup à notre compréhension du contexte socio-économique et historique de l’Arabia/Palaestina à la fin de l’Antiquité. L’article passe en revue les récents travaux sur les bains militaires romains du Wadi Arabah et offre de nouvelles analyses en termes de planification urbaine et architecturale.مُلخص : أظهرت الاكتشافات الأَثـريّة وعلى مَدى العَقْـديـن الماضيين في عِـدة مَواقع عَسكرية تعود للعَصْر الروماني المُتَأخـر في منطقة وادي عَـربه على عـَدد مِن الحمّامات التي تَشْترك في المنطقة الجغرافية و التّصميم المِعْـماري ، والتي شُيّدت في أَواخِر القرن الثالث وبداية القرن الرابع الميلادي خِلال الفترة القصيرة من الازْدهار الاقتصادي والتجارة الإقليمية النّشطة في المنطقة. و يُمْكِن لهذه الحمّامات العَسْكرية الرومانيّة الصَغيرة أن تضيف لنا الكثير مِن المَعلومات حَـوْل السّياقات الاجتماعية والاقتصادية والتّاريخية للولاية العربية – فلسطين في الفترات القديمة. و ستلقي هذه الــوَرقة الضوء على الأعْمال التي أُجَريت مُؤخراً بالحمّامات العَسْكريّة الرّومانية في منطقة وادي عَـربة وتُـقـدّم لنا تحْليلاً جديداً فيما يتعلق بموقعها وتَخْطيطها وطرازها المِعْماري

    The Association Between Mood States and Physical Activity in Postmenopausal Obese, Sedentary Women

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    Mood states influence evaluative judgments that can affect the decision to exercise or to continue to exercise

    Paper Session III-B - Overview of the Orbiting Radio Communications Asset (ORCA) Mission

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    The Orbiting Radio Communications Asset (ORCA) mission is a commercial mission being designed, built and conducted by the Iowa Space Grant Consortium, supported by Rockwell Collins, and Space Industries. The mission will utilize advanced technology digital radio equipment provided by Rockwell to survey the low-earth orbit radio spectrum. This survey is of interest to both the commercial communications industry and to the scientific radio astronomy community. In addition to the survey, the spacecraft will provide an on-orbit transmit and receive test platform for advanced communications technologies that can be fully reprogrammed from the control station. A significant feature of the ORCA mission is the intimate involvement of students from Drake University, the University of Iowa, the University of Northern Iowa, and Iowa State University. These students will be involved in all aspects of the mission design, development, and staff the operations center after the initial mission

    SoK: Cryptographically Protected Database Search

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    Protected database search systems cryptographically isolate the roles of reading from, writing to, and administering the database. This separation limits unnecessary administrator access and protects data in the case of system breaches. Since protected search was introduced in 2000, the area has grown rapidly; systems are offered by academia, start-ups, and established companies. However, there is no best protected search system or set of techniques. Design of such systems is a balancing act between security, functionality, performance, and usability. This challenge is made more difficult by ongoing database specialization, as some users will want the functionality of SQL, NoSQL, or NewSQL databases. This database evolution will continue, and the protected search community should be able to quickly provide functionality consistent with newly invented databases. At the same time, the community must accurately and clearly characterize the tradeoffs between different approaches. To address these challenges, we provide the following contributions: 1) An identification of the important primitive operations across database paradigms. We find there are a small number of base operations that can be used and combined to support a large number of database paradigms. 2) An evaluation of the current state of protected search systems in implementing these base operations. This evaluation describes the main approaches and tradeoffs for each base operation. Furthermore, it puts protected search in the context of unprotected search, identifying key gaps in functionality. 3) An analysis of attacks against protected search for different base queries. 4) A roadmap and tools for transforming a protected search system into a protected database, including an open-source performance evaluation platform and initial user opinions of protected search.Comment: 20 pages, to appear to IEEE Security and Privac