677 research outputs found

    The Perturbed Static Path Approximation at Finite Temperature: Observables and Strength Functions

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    We present an approximation scheme for calculating observables and strength functions of finite fermionic systems at finite temperature such as hot nuclei. The approach is formulated within the framework of the Hubbard-Stratonovich transformation and goes beyond the static path approximation and the RPA by taking into account small amplitude time-dependent fluctuations around each static value of the auxiliary fields. We show that this perturbed static path approach can be used systematically to obtain good approximations for observable expectation values and for low moments of the strength function. The approximation for the strength function itself, extracted by an analytic continuation from the imaginary-time response function, is not always reliable, and we discuss the origin of the discrepancies and possible improvements. Our results are tested in a solvable many-body model.Comment: 37 pages, 8 postscript figures included, RevTe

    Quantum Monte Carlo Methods for Nuclei at Finite Temperature

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    We discuss finite temperature quantum Monte Carlo methods in the framework of the interacting nuclear shell model. The methods are based on a representation of the imaginary-time many-body propagator as a superposition of one-body propagators describing non-interacting fermions moving in fluctuating auxiliary fields. Fermionic Monte Carlo calculations have been limited by a ``sign'' problem. A practical solution in the nuclear case enables realistic calculations in much larger configuration spaces than can be solved by conventional methods. Good-sign interactions can be constructed for realistic estimates of certain nuclear properties. We present various applications of the methods for calculating collective properties and level densities.Comment: Keynote talk at the Tenth International Conference on Recent Progress in Many-Body Theories, Seattle, September 10 - 15, 1999; 16 pages, 7 eps figure

    Mesoscopic Fluctuations in Quantum Dots, Nanoparticles and Nuclei

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    We discuss mesoscopic effects in quantum dots, nanoparticles and nuclei. In quantum dots, we focus on the statistical regime of dots whose single-electron dynamics are chaotic. Random matrix theory methods, developed to explain the statistics of neutron resonances in compound nuclei, are useful in describing the mesoscopic fluctuations of the conductance in such dots. However, correlation effects beyond the charging energy are important in almost-isolated dots. In particular, exchange and residual interactions are necessary to obtain a quantitative description of the mesoscopic fluctuations. Pairing correlations are important in metallic nanoparticles and nuclei. Nanoparticles smaller than \~ 3 nm and nuclei are close to the fluctuation-dominated regime in which the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory is not valid. Despite the large fluctuations, we find signatures of pairing correlations in the heat capacity of nuclei. These signatures depend on the particle-number parity of protons and neutronsComment: 20 pages, 17 figure

    The shell model Monte Carlo approach to level densities: recent developments and perspectives

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    We review recent advances in the shell model Monte Carlo approach for the microscopic calculation of statistical and collective properties of nuclei. We discuss applications to the calculation of (i) level densities in nickel isotopes, implementing a recent method to circumvent the odd-particle sign problem; (ii) state densities in heavy nuclei; (iii) spin distributions of nuclear levels; and (iv) finite-temperature quadrupole distributions.Comment: 9 pages, 7 figures, Contribution to the Topical Issue "Perspectives on Nuclear Data for the Next Decade" edited by N. Alamanos, E. Bauge, and S. Hilair

    Statistical Properties of Nuclei by the Shell Model Monte Carlo Method

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    We use quantum Monte Carlo methods in the framework of the interacting nuclear shell model to calculate the statistical properties of nuclei at finite temperature and/or excitation energies. With this approach we can carry out realistic calculations in much larger configuration spaces than are possible by conventional methods. A major application of the methods has been the microscopic calculation of nuclear partition functions and level densities, taking into account both correlations and shell effects. Our results for nuclei in the mass region A ~ 50 - 70 are in remarkably good agreement with experimental level densities without any adjustable parameters and are an improvement over empirical formulas. We have recently extended the shell model theory of level statistics to higher temperatures, including continuum effects. We have also constructed simple statistical models to explain the dependence of the microscopically calculated level densities on good quantum numbers such as parity. Thermal signatures of pairing correlations are identified through odd-even effects in the heat capacity.Comment: 6 pages, 6 figure

    Chaos and Interactions in Quantum Dots

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    Quantum dots are small conducting devices containing up to several thousand electrons. We focus here on closed dots whose single-electron dynamics are mostly chaotic. The mesoscopic fluctuations of the conduction properties of such dots reveal the effects of one-body chaos, quantum coherence and electron-electron interactions.Comment: 10 pages, including 11 figures, to appear in the Proceedings of the Nobel Symposium on Quantum Chaos 2000, Backaskog Castle, Sweden (Physica Scripta
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