36,108 research outputs found

    In Pursuit of Experience: The Authentic Documentation of Experience in Beat Generation Literature

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    Throughout their lives the authors of The Beat Generation sought an escape from the conformity of mid-century American life, in favour of fresh thrilling experiences to influence their writing. The writers of the Beat Generation developed writing methods that authentically document their real-life experiences. Therefore, this thesis examines the documentary nature of literature that came out of this Generation. The first section of the essay explores Beat literature as memoir; arguing that Kerouac's prose is based on his own first-hand experience recollected after the event. This section also argues that due to its fast pace and lack of revision, the Spontaneous Prose Method can be used by authors as a form suited to the authentic documentation of experience. The second chapter looks at the use of transcription methods to document a moment, or specific event, written during the experience. This chapter compares Gary Snyder's Riprap and Cold Mountain Poems, Ginsberg's 'Wichita Vortex Sutra', and Kerouac's Blues Poems as poetry that authentically portrays a moment of experience to the reader. The final chapter explores the more experimental methods of documentation, and whether any authenticity was lost to experimentation. The chapter also explores the Beat use of drugs on the content and form of the literature

    The place where curses are manufactured : four poets of the Vietnam War

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    The Vietnam War was unique among American wars. To pinpoint its uniqueness, it was necessary to look for a non-American voice that would enable me to articulate its distinctiveness and explore the American character as observed by an Asian. Takeshi Kaiko proved to be most helpful. From his novel, Into a Black Sun, I was able to establish a working pair of 'bookends' from which to approach the poetry of Walter McDonald, Bruce Weigl, Basil T. Paquet and Steve Mason. Chapter One is devoted to those seemingly mismatched 'bookends,' Walt Whitman and General William C. Westmoreland, and their respective anthropocentric and technocentric visions of progress and the peculiarly American concept of the "open road" as they manifest themselves in Vietnam. In Chapter, Two, I analyze the war poems of Walter McDonald. As a pilot, writing primarily about flying, his poetry manifests General Westmoreland's technocentric vision of the 'road' as determined by and manifest through technology. Chapter Three focuses on the poems of Bruce Weigl. The poems analyzed portray the literal and metaphorical descent from the technocentric, 'numbed' distance of aerial warfare to the world of ground warfare, and the initiation of a 'fucking new guy,' who discovers the contours of the self's interior through a set of experiences that lead from from aerial insertion into the jungle to the degradation of burning human feces. Chapter Four, devoted to the thirteen poems of Basil T. Paquet, focuses on the continuation of the descent begun in Chapter Two. In his capacity as a medic, Paquet's entire body of poems details his quotidian tasks which entail tending the maimed, the mortally wounded and the dead. The final chapter deals with Steve Mason's JohnnY's Song, and his depiction of the plight of Vietnam veterans back in "The World" who are still trapped inside the interior landscape of their individual "ghettoes" of the soul created by their war-time experiences

    Implementing Health Impact Assessment as a Required Component of Government Policymaking: A Multi-Level Exploration of the Determinants of Healthy Public Policy

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    It is widely understood that the public policies of ‘non-health’ government sectors have greater impacts on population health than those of the traditional healthcare realm. Health Impact Assessment (HIA) is a decision support tool that identifies and promotes the health benefits of policies while also mitigating their unintended negative consequences. Despite numerous calls to do so, the Ontario government has yet to implement HIA as a required component of policy development. This dissertation therefore sought to identify the contexts and factors that may both enable and impede HIA use at the sub-national (i.e., provincial, territorial, or state) government level. The three integrated articles of this dissertation provide insights into specific aspects of the policy process as they relate to HIA. Chapter one details a case study of purposive information-seeking among public servants within Ontario’s Ministry of Education (MOE). Situated within Ontario’s Ministry of Health (MOH), chapter two presents a case study of policy collaboration between health and ‘non-health’ ministries. Finally, chapter three details a framework analysis of the political factors supporting health impact tool use in two sub-national jurisdictions – namely, Québec and South Australia. MOE respondents (N=9) identified four components of policymaking ‘due diligence’, including evidence retrieval, consultation and collaboration, referencing, and risk analysis. As prospective HIA users, they also confirmed that information is not routinely sought to mitigate the potential negative health impacts of education-based policies. MOH respondents (N=8) identified the bureaucratic hierarchy as the brokering mechanism for inter-ministerial policy development. As prospective HIA stewards, they also confirmed that the ministry does not proactively flag the potential negative health impacts of non-health sector policies. Finally, ‘lessons learned’ from case articles specific to Québec (n=12) and South Australia (n=17) identified the political factors supporting tool use at different stages of the policy cycle, including agenda setting (‘policy elites’ and ‘political culture’), implementation (‘jurisdiction’), and sustained implementation (‘institutional power’). This work provides important insights into ‘real life’ policymaking. By highlighting existing facilitators of and barriers to HIA use, the findings offer a useful starting point from which proponents may tailor context-specific strategies to sustainably implement HIA at the sub-national government level

    Molecular diagnosis of Mycoplasma bovis

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    Dissertação de Mestrado Integrado em Medicina VeterináriaMycoplasma bovis is a bacteria responsible for different disease presentations in cattle, such as pneumonia, mastitis, otitis, genital disorders, keratoconjuntivitis and arthritis, presently considered as one of the major emerging pathogens affecting cattle. Until this day, it is responsible for losses in animal production of over 150 million euros across Europe. The pathogenesis of Mycoplasma-associated diseases is multifactorial and the highly variable surface lipoproteins allows a fast and efficient dissemination of M. bovis within the host and the herd. Due to its high antigenic plasticity, its ability to survive within multiple host cells and the capacity to establish multiple synergistic interactions with other pathogens, makes M. bovis and associated infections are a major challenge in Veterinary Medicine, since the vaccine is not efficient and antibiotics are almost inefficient. This study aims at developing and validating a quantitative PCR protocol for the diagnosis of M. bovis. 93 milk samples, from 5 different Portuguese farms, were collected, processed and each one’s DNA extracted to be analyzed through a qPCR method targeting the uvrC and uvrC2024 genes. Given the percentage of positivity, which was high, the conclusion we can take from the study is that there is still work to do, in terms of establishing a uniformed practice to tackle the wide presence of M. bovis in farms.RESUMO - Diagnóstico Molecular de M. bovis - Mycoplasma bovis é uma bactéria cuja infecção pode ter diferentes apresentações tais como pneumonia, mastite, otite, afecções genitais, queratoconjuntivite e artrites. É um dos agentes considerados emergentes e que afecta a produção agropecuária, sendo responsável por perdas na ordem dos 150 milhões de euros na Europa. Tem uma patogénese multifactorial e as proteínas membranares à sua superfície conferem uma variabilidade que permite uma rápida e eficiente disseminação no hospedeiro, e no rebanho. Esta variabilidade e capacidade de resistir à imunidade do hospedeiro, assim como as suas interacções sinérgicas com outros agentes patogénicos, tornam as infecções por M. bovis um obstáculo difícil de conter e ultrapassar na Medicina Veterinária, isto porque quer a antibioterapia, quer a vacina, não são eficientes. Este estudo procura desenvolver e contribuir para o estabelecimento de um protocolo de diagnóstico para a detecção de M. bovis. Vindas de 5 produções portuguesas diferentes, 93 amostras foram processadas e analisadas através de um qPCR, com os genes uvrC e uvrC2024 como genes alvo. Dados os resultados, com uma positividade significativa pode-se considerar que ainda há trabalho pela frente em termos de estabelecer e uniformizar uma prática para combater a larga presença de M. bovis nas explorações.N/

    Metaphors of London fog, smoke and mist in Victorian and Edwardian Art and Literature

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    Julian Wolfreys has argued that after 1850 writers employed stock images of the city without allowing them to transform their texts. This thesis argues, on the contrary, that metaphorical uses of London fog were complex and subtle during the Victorian and Edwardian periods, at least until 1914. Fog represented, in particular, formlessness and the dissolution of boundaries. Examining the idea of fog in literature, verse, newspaper accounts and journal articles, as well as in the visual arts, as part of a common discourse about London and the state of its inhabitants, this thesis charts how the metaphorical appropriation of this idea changed over time. Four of Dickens's novels are used to track his use of fog as part of a discourse of the natural and unnatural in individual and society, identifying it with London in progressively more negative terms. Visual representations of fog by Constable, Turner, Whistler, Monet, Markino, O'Connor, Roberts and Wyllie and Coburn showed an increasing readiness to engage with this discourse. Social tensions in the city in the 1880s were articulated in art as well as in fiction. Authors like Hay and Barr showed the destruction of London by its fog because of its inhabitants' supposed degeneracy. As the social threat receded, apocalyptic scenarios gave way to a more optimistic view in the work of Owen and others. Henry James used fog as a metaphorical representation of the boundaries of gendered behaviour in public, and the problems faced by women who crossed them. The dissertation also examines fog and individual transgression, in novels and short stories by Lowndes, Stevenson, Conan Doyle and Joseph Conrad. After 1914, fog was no more than a crude signifier of Victorian London in literature, film and, later, television, deployed as a cliche instead of the subtle metaphorical idea discussed in this thesis

    Embodying entrepreneurship: everyday practices, processes and routines in a technology incubator

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    The growing interest in the processes and practices of entrepreneurship has been dominated by a consideration of temporality. Through a thirty-six-month ethnography of a technology incubator, this thesis contributes to extant understanding by exploring the effect of space. The first paper explores how class structures from the surrounding city have appropriated entrepreneurship within the incubator. The second paper adopts a more explicitly spatial analysis to reveal how the use of space influences a common understanding of entrepreneurship. The final paper looks more closely at the entrepreneurs within the incubator and how they use visual symbols to develop their identity. Taken together, the three papers reject the notion of entrepreneurship as a primarily economic endeavour as articulated through commonly understood language and propose entrepreneuring as an enigmatic attractor that is accessed through the ambiguity of the non-verbal to develop the ‘new’. The thesis therefore contributes to the understanding of entrepreneurship and proposes a distinct role for the non-verbal in that understanding

    Penyelenggaraan Pemerintahan Berdasarkan Asas Keislaman Menurut Undang-Undang Nomor 11 Tahun 2006 Tentang Pemerintahan Aceh

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    Undang-Undang Nomor 11 Tahun 2006 memberikan kekhususan dan keistimewaan bagi Aceh dalam bidang penyelenggaraan pemerintahan dengan asas keislaman. Kelahiran UU tersebut erat kaitannya dengan legal policy (politik hukum) pemerintah pusat untuk menyediakan sebuah solusi komprehensif terhadap konflik Aceh yang sudah berlangsung lama. Namun, sejauh undang-undang ini diberlakukan kondisi kesejahteraan masyarakat Aceh belum sepenuhnya terpenuhi. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian yuridis normatif untuk melihat politik hukum, sistematisasi asas keislaman dan kendala penyelenggaraan pemerintahan Aceh yang berasaskan keislaman dalam kerangka negara kebangsaan dan negara kesatuan yang sangat majemuk. Untuk menjawab permasalahan penelitian, disertasi ini menggunakan lima landasan teoritis yaitu teori politik hukum, teori sistematisasi hukum, teori relasi agama dan Negara, teori perundang-undangan dan teori maqashi al-syariah. Penelitian ini menemukan bahwa kebijakan politik hukum pemerintah pusat dengan menerbitkan UU khusus bagi Aceh membuat Aceh tetap kokoh menjadi bagian dari NKRI, sebab UU tersebut berhasil memadamkan pemberontakan Aceh dan memberlakukan tertib hukum di Aceh. Secara teoritis, kebijakan politik hukum pemerintah pusat selaras dengan rumusan teoritik bahwa konfigurasi politik yang demokratis di masa kepemimpinan presiden SBY telah menghasilkan produk hukum yang responsif dan membeuktikan bahwa politik sangat mempengaruhi produk hukum. Dalam pembentukan UU Nomor 11 Tahun 2006 ditemukan bahwa untuk menjamin supaya kekhususan dan keistmewaan Aceh tetap terpelihara maka asas keislaman diletakkan sebagai asas utama dalam penyelenggaraan pemerintahan Aceh. Asas juga dipencarkan dan disistematisasikan dalam berbagai produk hukum di Aceh dalam bentuk qanun-qanun di tingkat provinsi dan kabupaten/kota. Pensistemasisasian asas keislaman sangat kentara dalam qanun-qanun yang berkaitan dengan syariat Islam. Sementara dalam qanun-qanun di luar qanun syariat Islam asas keislaman ini tidak dicantumkan secara eksplisit. Namun demikian, penyelenggaraan pemerintahan Aceh dalam kerangka pelaksanaan syariat Islam, memiliki kendala-kendala yang cukup beragam seperti kendala politik, yuridis dan sosiologis. Secara politik dan hukum, perubahan regulasi di tingkat nasional seringkali menimbulkan konflik regulasi antara kekhususan dan keistimewaan Aceh dengan berbagai produk hukum dan kebijakan di pusat. Namun, kekuatan qanun-qanun syariat di Aceh tetap kuat karena pembatalan terhadap qanunqanun tersebut hanya dapat dilakukan melalui judicial review di Mahkamah Agung
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