38,982 research outputs found

    Thromboembolism in pregnancy and puerperium: diagnosis by the image

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    El embarazo y puerperio son factores de riesgo conocido de enfermedad tromboemb√≥lica venosa (ETEV), que puede manifestarse tanto, como una trombosis venosa profunda (TVP) o una tromboembolia pulmonar (TEP). A pesar de su baja incidencia (1:1600 embarazos), la ETEV en sus dos modalidades, es una causa muy importante de morbimortalidad materna. Varios factores parecen influir en esta situaci√≥n: un aumento del riesgo tromb√≥tico, una presentaci√≥n cl√≠nica inespec√≠fica y la ausencia de un protocolo claro de actuaci√≥n desde el punto de vista de la imagen. As√≠, si ante la sospecha de TVP, est√° clara la t√©cnica de imagen a realizar. En el caso de TEP la elecci√≥n es controvertida. Sin duda los efectos de la radiaci√≥n sobre la madre y el feto o el uso de contrastes contribuyen a esta situaci√≥n. Tras una revisi√≥n exhaustiva de la bibliogr√°fica, podemos concluir que la ecograf√≠a es la t√©cnica de estudio inicial en la sospecha de TVP y TEP. En caso de ecograf√≠a negativa y persistencia de sospecha de TEP, tanto la gammagraf√≠a como la TAC son t√©cnicas √ļtiles, la elecci√≥n de una y otra depender√° de los hallazgos en la radiograf√≠a de t√≥rax, su disponibilidad y experiencia.Pregnancy and puerperium are known risk factors for venous thromboembolic disease (VTE), which can be manifested as a deep vein thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary thromboembolism (PE). Despite its low incidence (1: 1600 pregnancies), VTE in its two modalities is a very important cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. Several factors influence this situation: an increase in thrombotic risk, a nonspecific clinical presentation and the absence of a clear protocol of action from the point of view of the image. Given the suspicion of DVT, the image technique to be performed is clear. In the case of PET, the choice is controversial. The effects of radiation on the mother and the fetus or the use of contrasts contribute to this situation. After an exhaustive review of the literature, we can conclude that ultrasound is the technique of initial study in the suspicion of DVT and PE. In the case of negative ultrasound and persistent suspicion of PE, both scintigraphy and CT are useful techniques, the choice of the two functions of the findings on chest radiography, their availability and experience.Grado en Medicin

    International alliance of Urolithiasis (IAU) guideline on percutaneous nephrolithotomy

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    The International Alliance of Urolithiasis (IAU) would like to release the latest guideline on percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) and to provide a clinical framework for surgeons performing PCNL. These recommendations were collected and appraised from a systematic review and assessment of the literature covering all aspects of PCNLs from the PubMed database between January 1, 1976, and July 31, 2021. Each generated recommendation was graded using a modified GRADE methodology. The quality of the evidence was graded using a classification system modified from the Oxford Center for Evidence-Based Medicine Levels of Evidence. Forty-seven recommendations were summarized and graded, which covered the following issues, indications and contraindications, stone complexity evaluation, preoperative imaging, antibiotic strategy, management of antithrombotic therapy, anesthesia, position, puncture, tracts, dilation, lithotripsy, intraoperative evaluation of residual stones, exit strategy, postoperative imaging and stone-free status evaluation, complications. The present guideline on PCNL was the first in the IAU series of urolithiasis management guidelines. The recommendations, tips and tricks across the PCNL procedures would provide adequate guidance for urologists performing PCNLs to ensure safety and efficiency in PCNLs

    In-situ crack and keyhole pore detection in laser directed energy deposition through acoustic signal and deep learning

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    Cracks and keyhole pores are detrimental defects in alloys produced by laser directed energy deposition (LDED). Laser-material interaction sound may hold information about underlying complex physical events such as crack propagation and pores formation. However, due to the noisy environment and intricate signal content, acoustic-based monitoring in LDED has received little attention. This paper proposes a novel acoustic-based in-situ defect detection strategy in LDED. The key contribution of this study is to develop an in-situ acoustic signal denoising, feature extraction, and sound classification pipeline that incorporates convolutional neural networks (CNN) for online defect prediction. Microscope images are used to identify locations of the cracks and keyhole pores within a part. The defect locations are spatiotemporally registered with acoustic signal. Various acoustic features corresponding to defect-free regions, cracks, and keyhole pores are extracted and analysed in time-domain, frequency-domain, and time-frequency representations. The CNN model is trained to predict defect occurrences using the Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCCs) of the lasermaterial interaction sound. The CNN model is compared to various classic machine learning models trained on the denoised acoustic dataset and raw acoustic dataset. The validation results shows that the CNN model trained on the denoised dataset outperforms others with the highest overall accuracy (89%), keyhole pore prediction accuracy (93%), and AUC-ROC score (98%). Furthermore, the trained CNN model can be deployed into an in-house developed software platform for online quality monitoring. The proposed strategy is the first study to use acoustic signals with deep learning for insitu defect detection in LDED process.Comment: 36 Pages, 16 Figures, accepted at journal Additive Manufacturin

    SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Captive Hippos (Hippopotamus amphibius), Belgium.

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    Two adult female hippos in Zoo Antwerp who were naturally infected with SARS-CoV-2 showed nasal discharge for a few days. Virus was detected by immunocytochemistry and PCR in nasal swab samples and by PCR in faeces and pool water. Serology was also positive. No treatment was necessary

    Robotic Bronchoscopy: Review of Three Systems

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    Robotic bronchoscopy (RB) has been shown to improve access to smaller and more peripheral lung lesions, while simultaneously staging the mediastinum. Pre-clinical studies demonstrated extremely high diagnostic yields, but real-world RB yields have yet to fully matched up in prospective studies. Despite this, RB technology has rapidly evolved and has great potential for lung-cancer diagnosis and even treatment. In this article, we review the historical and present challenges with RB in order to compare three RB systems

    A scoping review of natural language processing of radiology reports in breast cancer

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    Various natural language processing (NLP) algorithms have been applied in the literature to analyze radiology reports pertaining to the diagnosis and subsequent care of cancer patients. Applications of this technology include cohort selection for clinical trials, population of large-scale data registries, and quality improvement in radiology workflows including mammography screening. This scoping review is the first to examine such applications in the specific context of breast cancer. Out of 210 identified articles initially, 44 met our inclusion criteria for this review. Extracted data elements included both clinical and technical details of studies that developed or evaluated NLP algorithms applied to free-text radiology reports of breast cancer. Our review illustrates an emphasis on applications in diagnostic and screening processes over treatment or therapeutic applications and describes growth in deep learning and transfer learning approaches in recent years, although rule-based approaches continue to be useful. Furthermore, we observe increased efforts in code and software sharing but not with data sharing

    An efficient, lightweight MobileNetV2-based fine-tuned model for COVID-19 detection using chest X-ray images

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    In recent years, deep learning's identification of cancer, lung disease and heart disease, among others, has contributed to its rising popularity. Deep learning has also contributed to the examination of COVID-19, which is a subject that is currently the focus of considerable scientific debate. COVID-19 detection based on chest X-ray (CXR) images primarily depends on convolutional neural network transfer learning techniques. Moreover, the majority of these methods are evaluated by using CXR data from a single source, which makes them prohibitively expensive. On a variety of datasets, current methods for COVID-19 detection may not perform as well. Moreover, most current approaches focus on COVID-19 detection. This study introduces a rapid and lightweight MobileNetV2-based model for accurate recognition of COVID-19 based on CXR images; this is done by using machine vision algorithms that focused largely on robust and potent feature-learning capabilities. The proposed model is assessed by using a dataset obtained from various sources. In addition to COVID-19, the dataset includes bacterial and viral pneumonia. This model is capable of identifying COVID-19, as well as other lung disorders, including bacterial and viral pneumonia, among others. Experiments with each model were thoroughly analyzed. According to the findings of this investigation, MobileNetv2, with its 92% and 93% training validity and 88% precision, was the most applicable and reliable model for this diagnosis. As a result, one may infer that this study has practical value in terms of giving a reliable reference to the radiologist and theoretical significance in terms of establishing strategies for developing robust features with great presentation ability

    Anu√°rio cient√≠fico da Escola Superior de Tecnologia da Sa√ļde de Lisboa - 2021

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    √Č com grande prazer que apresentamos a mais recente edi√ß√£o (a 11.¬™) do Anu√°rio Cient√≠fico da Escola Superior de Tecnologia da Sa√ļde de Lisboa. Como institui√ß√£o de ensino superior, temos o compromisso de promover e incentivar a pesquisa cient√≠fica em todas as √°reas do conhecimento que contemplam a nossa miss√£o. Esta publica√ß√£o tem como objetivo divulgar toda a produ√ß√£o cient√≠fica desenvolvida pelos Professores, Investigadores, Estudantes e Pessoal n√£o Docente da ESTeSL durante 2021. Este Anu√°rio √©, assim, o reflexo do trabalho √°rduo e dedicado da nossa comunidade, que se empenhou na produ√ß√£o de conte√ļdo cient√≠fico de elevada qualidade e partilhada com a Sociedade na forma de livros, cap√≠tulos de livros, artigos publicados em revistas nacionais e internacionais, resumos de comunica√ß√Ķes orais e p√≥steres, bem como resultado dos trabalhos de 1¬ļ e 2¬ļ ciclo. Com isto, o conte√ļdo desta publica√ß√£o abrange uma ampla variedade de t√≥picos, desde temas mais fundamentais at√© estudos de aplica√ß√£o pr√°tica em contextos espec√≠ficos de Sa√ļde, refletindo desta forma a pluralidade e diversidade de √°reas que definem, e tornam √ļnica, a ESTeSL. Acreditamos que a investiga√ß√£o e pesquisa cient√≠fica √© um eixo fundamental para o desenvolvimento da sociedade e √© por isso que incentivamos os nossos estudantes a envolverem-se em atividades de pesquisa e pr√°tica baseada na evid√™ncia desde o in√≠cio dos seus estudos na ESTeSL. Esta publica√ß√£o √© um exemplo do sucesso desses esfor√ßos, sendo a maior de sempre, o que faz com que estejamos muito orgulhosos em partilhar os resultados e descobertas dos nossos investigadores com a comunidade cient√≠fica e o p√ļblico em geral. Esperamos que este Anu√°rio inspire e motive outros estudantes, profissionais de sa√ļde, professores e outros colaboradores a continuarem a explorar novas ideias e contribuir para o avan√ßo da ci√™ncia e da tecnologia no corpo de conhecimento pr√≥prio das √°reas que comp√Ķe a ESTeSL. Agradecemos a todos os envolvidos na produ√ß√£o deste anu√°rio e desejamos uma leitura inspiradora e agrad√°vel.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica felina: a correlação entre a sintomatologia e os achados ecocardiograficos

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    A presente disserta√ß√£o est√° dividida em dois cap√≠tulos principais. No primeiro encontra-se descrito uma revis√£o bibliogr√°fica da doen√ßa cardiomiopatia hipertr√≥fica felina, no segundo o estudo desenvolvido pela estagi√°ria. A aluna, durante o est√°gio curricular, recolheu 15 casos cl√≠nicos que atrav√©s de uma an√°lise de frequ√™ncias absolutas e relativas, da correla√ß√£o de pearson e do teste anova, permitiu averiguar a correla√ß√£o existente entre os sinais cl√≠nicos e os achados ecocardiogr√°ficos, assim como o paralelismo entre as informa√ß√Ķes recolhidas e a literatura. O destaque da presente disserta√ß√£o consistiu na diverg√™ncia com os dados bibliogr√°ficos, nomeadamente, no que confere √† preval√™ncia racial e √† presen√ßa de CMH obstrutiva em animais assintom√°ticos. No que se refere as vari√°veis, foi not√≥ria a correla√ß√£o entre os sinais cl√≠nicos mais graves e os par√Ęmetros ecocardiogr√°ficos mais severos; Abstract: Feline hypertrophic cardiomyopathy - The present dissertation is divided into two main chapters. The first describes a bibliographical review of the disease feline hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, the second the study developed by the intern. The student, during the curricular internship, collected 15 clinical cases that, through an analysis of absolute and relative frequencies, the Pearson correlation and the Anova test, allowed to verify the correlation between the clinical signs and the echocardiographic findings and the parallelism between the information collected and the literature. The highlights of the present work was the incompatibility between the available literature and the data regarding (racial prevalence, echocardiographic findings, and presence of obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy), as well as the correlation between the most severe clinical signs and the most severe echocardiographic parameters

    Helicobacter pylori infection increases the risk of thyroid nodules in adults of Northwest China

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    BackgroundThyroid nodules (TNs) are very common in the adults of Northwest China. The role of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in TNs is poorly investigated and even with controversial conclusions. Our study aimed at highlighting the relationship between H. pylori infection and the risk of TNs.Methods9,042 individuals were enrolled with thyroid ultrasonography and 14C-urea breath test (14C-UBT). Baseline characteristics and relevant covariates were obtained, including basic and laboratory indicators. After applying the exclusion criteria, 8,839 patients were included and divided into 2 groups: a cross-sectional study of single follow-up (n=8,711) and a retrospective cohort study of multiple follow-ups for 5 years (n=139).ResultsThe prevalence of H. pylori infection and TNs was 39.58% and 47.94% in the adults of Northwest China, respectively. The prevalence of TNs was significantly higher among H. pylori-positive individuals than those without infection (52.55% vs. 44.92%, p<0.01). The result of binary logistic regression revealed that the crude odds ratio (OR) was 1.624 (95% CI 1.242~2.123) in Model 1 without adjustment compared to H. pylori-negative group, and was also positive in Model 2, 3, and 4 (Model 2: OR=1.731, 95% CI 1.294~2.316; Model 3: OR=2.287, 95% CI 1.633~3.205; Model 4: OR=2.016, 95% CI 1.390~2.922) after the adjustment. The data of 5-year follow-up showed that the annual incidence of TNs was significantly higher in individuals with persistent H. pylori infection than non-infected counterparts (all p<0.05).ConclusionsH. pylori is an independent risk factor for TNs in the adults of Northwest China
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