92,440 research outputs found

    Balancing the urban stomach: public health, food selling and consumption in London, c. 1558-1640

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    Until recently, public health histories have been predominantly shaped by medical and scientific perspectives, to the neglect of their wider social, economic and political contexts. These medically-minded studies have tended to present broad, sweeping narratives of health policy's explicit successes or failures, often focusing on extraordinary periods of epidemic disease viewed from a national context. This approach is problematic, particularly in studies of public health practice prior to 1800. Before the rise of modern scientific medicine, public health policies were more often influenced by shared social, cultural, economic and religious values which favoured maintaining hierarchy, stability and concern for 'the common good'. These values have frequently been overlooked by modern researchers. This has yielded pessimistic assessments of contemporary sanitation, implying that local authorities did not care about or prioritise the health of populations. Overly medicalised perspectives have further restricted historians' investigation and use of source material, their interpretation of multifaceted and sometimes contested cultural practices such as fasting, and their examination of habitual - and not just extraordinary - health actions. These perspectives have encouraged a focus on reactive - rather than preventative - measures. This thesis contributes to a growing body of research that expands our restrictive understandings of pre-modern public health. It focuses on how public health practices were regulated, monitored and expanded in later Tudor and early Stuart London, with a particular focus on consumption and food-selling. Acknowledging the fundamental public health value of maintaining urban foodways, it investigates how contemporaries sought to manage consumption, food production waste, and vending practices in the early modern City's wards and parishes. It delineates the practical and political distinctions between food and medicine, broadly investigates the activities, reputations of and correlations between London's guild and itinerant food vendors and licensed and irregular medical practitioners, traces the directions in which different kinds of public health policy filtered up or down, and explores how policies were enacted at a national and local level. Finally, it compares and contrasts habitual and extraordinary public health regulations, with a particular focus on how perceptions of and actual food shortages, paired with the omnipresent threat of disease, impacted broader aspects of civic life

    Effect of relative income price on smoking initiation among adolescents in Ghana : evidence from pseudo-longitudinal data

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    Objective: Many smokers initiate smoking during adolescence. Making tobacco products less affordable is one of the best ways to control tobacco use. Studies on the effect of relative income price (RIP (i.e., affordability)) of cigarettes on smoking initiation are scarce in low and middle-income countries, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa where data are limited. The goal of this study is to examine the effect of cigarette RIP on adolescent smoking initiation in Ghana. Setting: The study uses a pseudo-longitudinal dataset constructed from the Global Youth Tobacco Surveys (GYTS (2000-2009 and 2017)) and RIP for the most sold cigarette brand in Ghana. Participants: The GYTS is a national survey on adolescents. Primary and secondary outcome: Effect of RIP on adolescent smoking initiation in Ghana. Results: Using the GYTS 2000-2009 data, we find that the probability of smoking initiation falls significantly in response to a higher RIP, with an elasticity of -0.372 (95% CI: -0.701 to -0.042) for the unmatched sample and -0.490 (95% CI: -0.818 to -0.161) for the matched sample. The RIP elasticity for females [(-0.888) (95% CI: -1.384 to -0.392) and (-0.928) (95% CI: -1.434 to -0.422)] is statistically significant at 1% in both the unmatched and the matched samples, respectively, while the RIP elasticity for males is statistically insignificant in the 2000 - 2009 surveys. Analysis of the 2017 GYTS shows a similar outcome: a negative relationship between RIP and smoking initiation, and the results are statistically significant for both male and female, and for both matched and unmatched samples. Conclusion: The affordability (RIP) of cigarettes is negatively related to the probability of smoking initiation among adolescents in Ghana. Raising tobacco taxes in line with income growth would make cigarettes less affordable and dissuade adolescents from initiating smoking. Keywords: prices; taxes; smoking initiation; adolescents; relative income pric

    The labour supply and retirement of older workers: an empirical analysis

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    This thesis examines the labour supply of older workers, their movement into retirement, and any movement out of retirement and back into work. In particular the labour force participation, labour supply and wage elasticity and other income elasticity of work hours are estimated for older workers and compared to younger workers. The thesis goes on to look at the movement into retirement for older workers as a whole by examining cohorts by gender, wave and age. The thesis also presents a descriptive and quantitative ‚ÄĘ examination of the changes in income and happiness that occur as an individual retires. Finally the thesis examines the reasons why an individual may return to work from v . retirement. The results of the findings suggest: that younger workers are significantly more responsive to wage and household income changes than older worker

    The company she keeps : The social and interpersonal construction of girls same sex friendships

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    This thesis begins a critical analysis of girls' 'private' interpersonal and social relations as they are enacted within two school settings. It is the study of these marginal subordinated worlds productivity of forms of femininity which provides the main narrative of this project. I seek to understand these processes of (best) friendship construction through a feminist multi-disciplinary frame, drawing upon cultural studies, psychoanalysis and accounts of gender politics. I argue that the investments girls bring to their homosocial alliances and boundary drawing narry a psychological compulsion which is complexly connected to their own experiences within the mother/daughter bond as well as reflecting positively an immense social debt to the permissions girls have to be nurturant and ; negatively their own reproduction of oppressive exclusionary practices. Best friendship in particular gives girls therefore, the experience of 'monogamy' continuous of maternal/daughter identification, reminiscent of their positioning inside monopolistic forms of heterosexuality. But these subcultures also represent a subversive discontinuity to the public dominance of boys/teachers/adults in schools and to the ideologies and practices of heterosociality and heterosexuality. By taking seriously their transmission of the values of friendship in their chosen form of notes and diaries for example, I was able to access the means whereby they were able to resist their surveillance and control by those in power over them. I conclude by arguing that it is through a recognition of the valency of these indivisiblly positive and negative aspects to girls cultures that Equal Opportunities practitioners must begin if they are serious about their ambitions. Methods have to be made which enable girls to transfer their 'private' solidarities into the 'public' realm, which unquestionably demands contesting with them the causes and consequences of their implication in the divisions which also contaminate their lives and weaken them

    Unpleasant actuarial arithmetic: fair contribution rates for defined benefit pension schemes

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    We derive key properties of the actuarially fair contribution rate for defined benefit (DB) schemes, that equates scheme assets to liabilities for any given scheme member. The unpleasant actuarial arithmetic of both increased life expectancy and (especially) negative real yields has resulted in a massive rise in the fair contribution rate over recent decades. At present there appears to be little prospect of these rises being reversed. We analyse the implications for the viability of DB schemes, and consider the (potentially significant) impact of incorporating systematic risk into benefits

    Informe sobre el expediente No. 000155-2009-CEB, denuncia contra el ministerio de transportes y comunicaciones por barrera burocr√°tica ilegal

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    El presente informe jur√≠dico tiene por objetivo analizar la denuncia por la supuesta existencia de una barrera burocr√°tica, interpuesta por Geo Supply S.A.C., una empresa de telecomunicaciones dedicada a la prestaci√≥n del servicio p√ļblico m√≥vil por sat√©lite, contra el Ministerio de Transportes y Telecomunicaciones, entidad administrativa encargada del c√°lculo y cobro del canon por el uso del espectro radioel√©ctrico. La referida denuncia tiene por finalidad que el Indecopi declare la inaplicaci√≥n de la metodolog√≠a de c√°lculo del canon a su caso concreto, al considerar que esta constituye una barrera burocr√°tica ilegal e irracional. El caso bajo an√°lisis presenta una cuesti√≥n jur√≠dica compleja, que parte por determinar la naturaleza del cobro del canon efectuado por el Ministerio de Transportes y Comunicaciones. Dependiendo de la postura que se asuma, las consecuencias jur√≠dicas ser√°n diametralmente distintas. De esta forma, se presentan problemas relativos a la conceptualizaci√≥n del tributo, sus caracter√≠sticas, los l√≠mites de la potestad tributaria, las competencias de los √≥rganos administrativos, la interpretaci√≥n constitucional y la v√≠a id√≥nea para cuestionar el car√°cter confiscatorio de un tributo. Estas materias tienen implicancias de significativo valor econ√≥mico y jur√≠dico, dado que los criterios que resuelven este caso son aplicables a similares cobros que hace el Estado por otro tipo de recursos naturales. En ese contexto, el presente caso invita a explorar las conexiones entre el derecho tributario, el derecho de las telecomunicaciones, el derecho administrativo, ello enmarcado en la teor√≠a de un Estado Constitucional de Derecho, por lo que es necesario utilizar las herramientas de la teor√≠a general del derecho. En ese sentido, la hip√≥tesis del presente informe sostiene que el canon por uso del espectro radioel√©ctrico tiene naturaleza tributaria, espec√≠ficamente califica como una tasa, de la especie derecho, que se distingue de los precios p√ļblicos. En consecuencia, en el presente informe se sostendr√° que la forma de cuestionar la razonabilidad del cobro es mediante un control de constitucionalidad (confiscatorio), que no forma parte de la competencia del Indecopi, toda vez que existen otras v√≠as pertinentes, tales como el proceso contencioso tributario o los procesos constitucionales de acci√≥n popular o amparo.The objective of this legal report is to analyze the complaint for the alleged existence of a bureaucratic barrier, filed by Geo Supply SAC, a telecommunications company dedicated to the provision of the public mobile satellite service, against the Ministry of Transport and Telecommunications, an administrative entity in charge of the calculation and collection of the fee for the use of the radioelectric spectrum. The aforementioned complaint is intended for Indecopi to declare the non-application of the fee calculation methodology to its specific case, considering that it constitutes an illegal and irrational bureaucratic barrier. The case under analysis presents a complex legal issue, which starts by determining the nature of the collection of the fee made by the Ministry of Transportation and Communications. Depending on the position taken, the legal consequences will be diametrically different. In 2 this way, there are problems related to the conceptualization of the tax, its characteristics, the limits of the tax authority, the powers of the administrative bodies, the constitutional interpretation and the ideal way to question the confiscatory nature of a tax. These matters have implications of significant economic and legal value, since the criteria that resolve this case are applicable to similar charges made by the State for other types of natural resources. In this context, the present case invites us to explore the connections between tax law, telecommunications law, administrative law, framed in the theory of a Constitutional State of Law, so it is necessary to use the tools of the theory general of law. In this sense, the hypothesis of this report maintains that the fee for the use of the radioelectric spectrum has a tax nature, specifically it qualifies as a rate, of the right kind, which is distinguished from public prices. Consequently, in this report it will be argued that the way to question the reasonableness of the collection is through a constitutionality control (confiscatory), which is not part of Indecopi's competence, since there are other relevant channels, such as the process tax litigation or constitutional processes of popular action or protection

    The Influence of Quality on eWOM: A Digital Transformation in Hotel Management

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    612324There is no doubt that the use of Internet for purchasing products and services has constituted a crucial change in how people go about buying them. In the era of digital transformation, the possibility of accessing information provided by other users about their personal experiences has taken on more weight in the selection and buying processes. On these lines, traditional word-of-mouth (WOM) has given way to electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM), which constitutes a major social change. This behavior is particularly relevant in the services area, where potential users cannot in advance assess what is on offer. There is an abundant literature analyzing the effects of eWOM on different variables of interest in this sector. However, little is known about the factors that determine eWOM. Thus, the main objective of the present paper is to analyze the impact of two variables (objective quality and perceived quality) on eWOM. Both of them are crucial for potential customers in the process of finding hotel accommodations and they can motivate people to make such comments. The results demonstrate that these variables truly have a significant impact on whether or not users make comments on line. Moreover, it proved possible to observe certain differences according to the profile of the tourist involved and the destination where the hotel is located. In the current changing environment, this information is of great use for hotel managers in order to design strategies according to the type of guest they wish to attract.S
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