868,974 research outputs found

    Precipitation Protocols

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    The purpose of this activity is to determine the amount of moisture input to the local environment by measuring rain and snowfall and to measure the pH of precipitation. To do so students use a rain gauge and a snowboard to measure the daily amount of precipitation. Special pH measuring techniques for precipitation are used to determine the pH of rain and melted snow. Intended outcomes are that students will understand that precipitation is measured in depth and this depth is assumed to apply to a large area, that precipitation has a pH that can vary, and that snow is an input of water to the surface just like rain and each snowfall is equivalent to some amount of rainfall. Supporting background materials for both student and teacher are included. Educational levels: Primary elementary, Intermediate elementary, Middle school, High school

    Spatiotemporal variation in precipitation during rainy season in Beibu Gulf, South China, from 1961 to 2016

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    The spatiotemporal variation in precipitation is an important part of water cycle change, which is directly associatedwith the atmospheric environment and climate change. The high-resolution spatiotemporal change of precipitation is still unknown inmany areas despite its importance. This study analyzed the spatiotemporal variation in precipitation in Beibu Gulf, South China, during the rainy season (fromApril to September) in the period of 1961–2016. The precipitation datawere collected from 12 national standard rain-gauge observation stations. The spatiotemporal variation in precipitation was evaluated with incidence rate and contribution rate of precipitation. The tendency of variations was analyzed using the Mann–Kendall method. The precipitation in the rainy season contributed 80% to the total annual precipitation. In general, there was an exponential decreasing tendency between the precipitation incidence rate and increased precipitation durations. The corresponding contribution rate showed a downward trend after an initial increase. The precipitation incidence rate decreased with the rising precipitation grades, with a gradual increase in contribution rate. The precipitation incidence rate and contribution rate of 7–9 d durations showed the significant downward trends that passed the 95% level of significance test. The results provide a new understanding of precipitation change in the last five decades, which is valuable for predicting future climate change and extreme weather prevention and mitigation

    New 2012 Precipitation Frequency Estimation Analysis for Alaska: Musings on Data Used and the Final Product

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    INE/AUTC 13.1

    The dependence of precipitation and its footprint on atmospheric temperature in idealized extratropical cyclones

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    Flood hazard is a function of the magnitude and spatial pattern of precipitation accumulation. The sensitivity of precipitation to atmospheric temperature is investigated for idealized extratropical cyclones, enabling us to examine the footprint of extreme precipitation (surface area where accumulated precipitation exceeds high thresholds) and the accumulation in different-sized catchment areas. The mean precipitation increases with temperature, with the mean increase at 5.40%/∘C. The 99.9th percentile of accumulated precipitation increases at 12.7%/∘C for 1 h and 9.38%/∘C for 24 h, both greater than Clausius-Clapeyron scaling. The footprint of extreme precipitation grows considerably with temperature, with the relative increase generally greater for longer durations. The sensitivity of the footprint of extreme precipitation is generally super Clausius-Clapeyron. The surface area of all precipitation shrinks with increasing temperature. Greater relative changes in the number of catchment areas exceeding extreme total precipitation are found when the domain is divided into larger rather than smaller catchment areas. This indicates that fluvial flooding may increase faster than pluvial flooding from extratropical cyclones in a warming world. When the catchment areas are ranked in order of total precipitation, the 99.9th percentile is found to increase slightly above Clausius-Clapeyron expectations for all of the catchment sizes, from 9 km2 to 22,500 km2. This is surprising for larger catchment areas given the change in mean precipitation. We propose that this is due to spatially concentrated changes in extreme precipitation in the occluded fron

    The sensitivity of oceanic precipitation to sea surface temperature

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    Our study forms the oceanic counterpart to numerous observational studies over land concerning the sensitivity of extreme precipitation to a change in air temperature. We explore the sensitivity of oceanic precipitation to changing sea surface temperature (SST) by exploiting two novel datasets at high resolution. First, we use the Ocean Rainfall And Ice-phase precipitation measurement Network (OceanRAIN) as an observational along-track shipboard dataset at 1 min resolution. Second, we exploit the most recent European Reanalysis version 5 (ERA5) at hourly resolution on a 31 km grid. Matched with each other, ERA5 vertical velocity allows the constraint of the OceanRAIN precipitation. Despite the inhomogeneous sampling along ship tracks, OceanRAIN agrees with ERA5 on the average latitudinal distribution of precipitation with fairly good seasonal sampling. However, the 99th percentile of OceanRAIN precipitation follows a super Clausius–Clapeyron scaling with a SST that exceeds 8.5 % K−1 while ERA5 precipitation scales with 4.5 % K−1. The sensitivity decreases towards lower precipitation percentiles, while OceanRAIN keeps an almost constant offset to ERA5 due to higher spatial resolution and temporal sampling. Unlike over land, we find no evidence for a decreasing precipitation event duration with increasing SST. ERA5 precipitation reaches a local minimum at about 26 ∘C that vanishes when constraining vertical velocity to strongly rising motion and excluding areas of weak correlation between precipitation and vertical velocity. This indicates that instead of moisture limitations as over land, circulation dynamics rather limit precipitation formation over the ocean. For the strongest rising motion, precipitation scaling converges to a constant value at all precipitation percentiles. Overall, high resolutions in observations and climate models are key to understanding and predicting the sensitivity of oceanic precipitation extremes to a change in SST

    Systematic front distortion and presence of consecutive fronts in a precipitation system

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    A new simple reaction-diffusion system is presented focusing on pattern formation phenomena as consecutive precipitation fronts and distortion of the precipitation front.The chemical system investigated here is based on the amphoteric property of aluminum hydroxide and exhibits two unique phenomena. Both the existence of consecutive precipitation fronts and distortion are reported for the first time. The precipitation patterns could be controlled by the pH field, and the distortion of the precipitation front can be practical for microtechnological applications of reaction-diffusion systems