1,147,923 research outputs found

    The Pollution Game: A Classroom Exercise Demonstrating the Relative Effectiveness of Emissions Taxes and Tradable Permits

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    This classroom exercise illustrates the strengths and weaknesses of various regulatory frameworks aimed at internalizing negative externalities from pollution. Specifically, the exercise divides students into three groups—the government regulatory agency and two polluting firms—and allows them to work through a system of uniform command-and-control regulation, a tradable emissions permit framework, and an emissions tax. Students have the opportunity to observe how flexible, market-oriented regulatory frameworks can outperform inflexible command-and-control. More importantly given the ongoing debate about how best to regulate carbon dioxide emissions, students can also observe how the introduction of abatement-cost uncertainty can cause one market-oriented solution to outperform another.classroom experiments, emissions taxes, pollution, tradable emissions permits

    Spectral Pollution

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    We discuss the problems arising when computing eigenvalues of self-adjoint operators which lie in a gap between two parts of the essential spectrum. Spectral pollution, i.e. the apparent existence of eigenvalues in numerical computations, when no such eigenvalues actually exist, is commonplace in problems arising in applied mathematics. We describe a geometrically inspired method which avoids this difficulty, and show that it yields the same results as an algorithm of Zimmermann and Mertins.Comment: 23 page

    Pigeons home faster through polluted air.

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    Air pollution, especially haze pollution, is creating health issues for both humans and other animals. However, remarkably little is known about how animals behaviourally respond to air pollution. We used multiple linear regression to analyse 415 pigeon races in the North China Plain, an area with considerable air pollution, and found that while the proportion of pigeons successfully homed was not influenced by air pollution, pigeons homed faster when the air was especially polluted. Our results may be explained by an enhanced homing motivation and possibly an enriched olfactory environment that facilitates homing. Our study provides a unique example of animals' response to haze pollution; future studies are needed to identify proposed mechanisms underlying this effect

    Health, wealth, and air pollution: advancing theory and methods.

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    The effects of both ambient air pollution and socioeconomic position (SEP) on health are well documented. A limited number of recent studies suggest that SEP may itself play a role in the epidemiology of disease and death associated with exposure to air pollution. Together with evidence that poor and working-class communities are often more exposed to air pollution, these studies have stimulated discussion among scientists, policy makers, and the public about the differential distribution of the health impacts from air pollution. Science and public policy would benefit from additional research that integrates the theory and practice from both air pollution and social epidemiologies to gain a better understanding of this issue. In this article we aim to promote such research by introducing readers to methodologic and conceptual approaches in the fields of air pollution and social epidemiology; by proposing theories and hypotheses about how air pollution and socioeconomic factors may interact to influence health, drawing on studies conducted worldwide; by discussing methodologic issues in the design and analysis of studies to determine whether health effects of exposure to ambient air pollution are modified by SEP; and by proposing specific steps that will advance knowledge in this field, fill information gaps, and apply research results to improve public health in collaboration with affected communities

    Can Cross-Border Pollution Reduce Pollution?

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    We develop a North-South model of foreign aid and cross-border pollution resulting from production activities in the recipient country. There is both private and public abatement of pollution, the latter being financed through emissions tax revenue and foreign aid. We characterise a Nash equilibrium where the donor country chooses the amount of aid, and the recipient chooses the fraction of aid allocated to pollution abatement and/or the emission tax rate. At this equilibrium, an increase in the donor's perceived rate of cross-border pollution reduces net emission levels.Cross-border pollution, pollution abatement, foreign aid

    Prediction of local particle pollution level based on artificial neural network

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    Citizens eager to know the local pollution level to prevent from air pollution. The real-time measurement for everywhere is a very expensive way, a statistical model based on artificial neural network is applied in this research. This model can estimate particle pollution level with some influencing factors, including background pollution level, weather conditions, urban morphology and local pollution sources. The monitoring from regulatory monitoring sites is considered as the background level. The field measurements of 20 locations are conducted to feed the output layer of ANN model. The average relative error of prediction compared with measurement is 9.24% for PM10 and 18.90% for PM2.5