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    The Netherlands

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    New records of Laboulbeniales (Fungi, Ascomycota) for The Netherlands

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    Laboulbeniales are obligate ectoparasitic ascomycetes occurring on Arthropoda, mostly insects. Since the 1950s almost no research on Laboulbeniales has been done in The Netherlands. This study presents a preliminary list of Laboulbeniales found on insects collected in De Kaaistoep. Thirteen species of Laboulbeniales were found on fourteen different insect hosts, nine of which are new to The Netherlands. One dipteran host is new to the entomofauna of The Netherlands

    Current challenges in software solutions for mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomics

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    This work was in part supported by the PRIME-XS project, grant agreement number 262067, funded by the European Union seventh Framework Programme; The Netherlands Proteomics Centre, embedded in The Netherlands Genomics Initiative; The Netherlands Bioinformatics Centre; and the Centre for Biomedical Genetics (to S.C., B.B. and A.J.R.H); by NIH grants NCRR RR001614 and RR019934 (to the UCSF Mass Spectrometry Facility, director: A.L. Burlingame, P.B.); and by grants from the MRC, CR-UK, BBSRC and Barts and the London Charity (to P.C.

    Prevalence of psychoactive substances in Dutch and Belgian traffic

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    Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the prevalence of psychoactive substances in general traffic in The Netherlands and Belgium. Method: Randomly selected car drivers and drivers of small vans in six police regions in The Netherlands and five police regions in Belgium were included between January 2007 and August 2009. Blood and oral fluid samples were analyzed for 23 substances, including ethanol (alcohol), by means of ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry or gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis. Samples were weighted according to the distribution of traffic over eight 6-hour periods. Substance groups were categorized in five mutually exclusive classes: single alcohol use, single illicit drug use, single medicinal drugs use, multiple drug use (including drugs from two or more separate substance groups but excluding alcohol), and drug use (either single or multiple) in combination with alcohol. Results: In total, 7,771 drivers (4,822 in The Netherlands and 2,949 in Belgium) were included in the study. In Belgium, the prevalence of single alcohol (6.4%) and single medicinal drugs (3.0%) was much higher than in The Netherlands (2.2% and 0.6%, respectively), whereas the single illicit drugs were more common in Dutch traffic (2.2%) than in Belgian traffic (0.6%). Compared with the estimated prevalence of psychoactive substances in the general driving public in Europe, the prevalence in Belgium (10.7%) was greater than the European average (7.4%), and the prevalence in The Netherlands was below the European average (5.5%). Conclusions: The observed prevalence of psychoactive substances varies largely between The Netherlands and Belgium. Probable reasons for the differences are the higher level of alcohol enforcement in The Netherlands and nonresponse bias in the Belgian study (for illicit drugs in particular). Furthermore, cultural differences and variances in prescription policy could also be influential

    The location of R&D in the Netherlands: trends, determinants and policy

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    Many factors determine the location of business R&D projects, the most important being history, the supply of R&D labour, and the quality of the public knowledge infrastructure (including the science-industry knowledge transfer). The set of R&D locations in the Netherlands changes little over time. But two things do change regularly: the size of the R&D activities at a particular site and the name and nationality of the owner of an R&D site. The Netherlands takes an average or higher position in a ranking of OECD countries according to attractiveness to the location of business R&D. Since domestic R&D is an important engine for domestic economic growth and since the market fails to provide optimal incentives for R&D, there is scope for government policy that improves upon the R&D location climate. Yet, this policy rationale does not necessarily imply that R&D policy initiatives are always effective and efficient: elasticities and social (opportunity) costs should be taken into account.