49,851 research outputs found

    The place where curses are manufactured : four poets of the Vietnam War

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    The Vietnam War was unique among American wars. To pinpoint its uniqueness, it was necessary to look for a non-American voice that would enable me to articulate its distinctiveness and explore the American character as observed by an Asian. Takeshi Kaiko proved to be most helpful. From his novel, Into a Black Sun, I was able to establish a working pair of 'bookends' from which to approach the poetry of Walter McDonald, Bruce Weigl, Basil T. Paquet and Steve Mason. Chapter One is devoted to those seemingly mismatched 'bookends,' Walt Whitman and General William C. Westmoreland, and their respective anthropocentric and technocentric visions of progress and the peculiarly American concept of the "open road" as they manifest themselves in Vietnam. In Chapter, Two, I analyze the war poems of Walter McDonald. As a pilot, writing primarily about flying, his poetry manifests General Westmoreland's technocentric vision of the 'road' as determined by and manifest through technology. Chapter Three focuses on the poems of Bruce Weigl. The poems analyzed portray the literal and metaphorical descent from the technocentric, 'numbed' distance of aerial warfare to the world of ground warfare, and the initiation of a 'fucking new guy,' who discovers the contours of the self's interior through a set of experiences that lead from from aerial insertion into the jungle to the degradation of burning human feces. Chapter Four, devoted to the thirteen poems of Basil T. Paquet, focuses on the continuation of the descent begun in Chapter Two. In his capacity as a medic, Paquet's entire body of poems details his quotidian tasks which entail tending the maimed, the mortally wounded and the dead. The final chapter deals with Steve Mason's JohnnY's Song, and his depiction of the plight of Vietnam veterans back in "The World" who are still trapped inside the interior landscape of their individual "ghettoes" of the soul created by their war-time experiences

    How Does Reciprocity Affect Undergraduate Student Orientation towards Stakeholders?

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    5987Nowadays, students are more aware of the impact of companies on their stakeholders and the need for properly handling their expectations to operationalize corporate social responsibility. Nevertheless, little is known about how certain individual traits may relate to their stance on the issue. This exploratory research contributes to stakeholder theory by analysing the e ect of the individual’s decision-making process, including the consideration of their social preferences, on their orientation toward stakeholder management. Here, we draw upon a theoretical model for resource-allocation decision-making consisting of reciprocal and non-reciprocal components. Our data, from undergraduate students enrolled in di erent degrees, were collected through a questionnaire and two social within-subject experiments (ultimatum and dictator games). Thus, our results show that the presence of a reciprocal component when decisions are made is positively linked to an instrumental orientation toward stakeholders. In addition, a greater non-reciprocal component in the decision-making process corresponds to a more normative orientation.S

    Folates: An Introduction

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    Folate is a naturally occurring essential nutrient which is vital for DNA replication and a necessary substrate in various enzymatic reactions which are involved in synthesis of amino acids and vitamin metabolism. The synthetic and oxidized form of folate is folic acid, it is mainly incorporated into fortified foods and dietary supplements for preventive measures against folate deficiency. Folate deficiency has been linked with several abnormalities in both mother (anemia, peripheral neuropathy) and fetus (congenital abnormalities). Folic acid supplementation taken around the time of conception has been known to alleviate the risk of neural tube defects in the off springs. Optimal intake and absorption of folates is required for the maintenance of the human body’s normal functioning and keeping the genomic integrity intact

    Where Does Music End and Nonmusic Begin? Fine-tuning the “Naturalist Response” Problem for Nontonal Music’s Naturalistic Critics

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    As to what distinguishes music from other sound, some investigators in both philosophy and cognitive scientists have answered “tonality.” It seems subservient even to rhythm. Tonality is considered to be the central factor around which the piece is oriented; it gives a sense of home, expectation, and completeness. Most important, much of this inquiry builds on naturalistic, evolutionary explanation to account for human nature and behavior. The conclusion of such line of thought is that sounds missing tonality or tonal focus cannot be music. This article challenges such sort of naturalistic criteria distinguishing music from nonmusic. Permitting certain sets of sounds to be considered music does not necessitate denial or approval of naturalistic explanations but does allow nontonal music to serve a part of human and musical evolution

    “They're Not True Humans:” Beliefs about Moral Character Drive Denials of Humanity

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    A puzzling feature of paradigmatic cases of dehumanization is that the perpetrators often attribute uniquely human traits to their victims. This has become known as the “paradox of dehumanization.” We address the paradox by arguing that the perpetrators think of their victims as human in one sense, while denying that they are human in another sense. We do so by providing evidence that people harbor a dual character concept of humanity. Research has found that dual character concepts have two independent sets of criteria for their application, one of which is descriptive and one of which is normative. Across four experiments, we found evidence that people deploy a descriptive criterion according to which being human is a matter of being a Homo sapiens; as well as a normative criterion according to which being human is a matter of possessing a deep-seated commitment to do the morally right thing. Importantly, we found that people are willing to affirm that someone is human in the descriptive sense, while denying that they are human in the normative sense, and vice versa. In addition to providing a solution to the paradox of dehumanization, these findings suggest that perceptions of moral character have a central role to play in driving dehumanization

    The association between neurodegeneration and local complement activation in the thalamus to progressive multiple sclerosis outcome

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    The extent of grey matter demyelination and neurodegeneration in the progressive multiple sclerosis (PMS) brains at post‐mortem associates with more severe disease. Regional tissue atrophy, especially affecting the cortical and deep grey matter, including the thalamus, is prognostic for poor outcomes. Microglial and complement activation are important in the pathogenesis and contribute to damaging processes that underlie tissue atrophy in PMS. We investigated the extent of pathology and innate immune activation in the thalamus in comparison to cortical grey and white matter in blocks from 21 cases of PMS and 10 matched controls. Using a digital pathology workflow, we show that the thalamus is invariably affected by demyelination and had a far higher proportion of active inflammatory lesions than forebrain cortical tissue blocks from the same cases. Lesions were larger and more frequent in the medial nuclei near the ventricular margin, whilst neuronal loss was greatest in the lateral thalamic nuclei. The extent of thalamic neuron loss was not associated with thalamic demyelination but correlated with the burden of white matter pathology in other forebrain areas (Spearman r = 0.79, p < 0.0001). Only thalamic neuronal loss, and not that seen in other forebrain cortical areas, correlated with disease duration (Spearman r = −0.58, p = 0.009) and age of death (Spearman r = −0.47, p = 0.045). Immunoreactivity for the complement pattern recognition molecule C1q, and products of complement activation (C4d, Bb and C3b) were elevated in thalamic lesions with an active inflammatory pathology. Complement regulatory protein, C1 inhibitor, was unchanged in expression. We conclude that active inflammatory demyelination, neuronal loss and local complement synthesis and activation in the thalamus, are important to the pathological and clinical disease outcomes of PMS

    Walking with the Earth: Intercultural Perspectives on Ethics of Ecological Caring

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    It is commonly believed that considering nature different from us, human beings (qua rational, cultural, religious and social actors), is detrimental to our engagement for the preservation of nature. An obvious example is animal rights, a deep concern for all living beings, including non-human living creatures, which is understandable only if we approach nature, without fearing it, as something which should remain outside of our true home. “Walking with the earth” aims at questioning any similar preconceptions in the wide sense, including allegoric-poetic contributions. We invited 14 authors from 4 continents to express all sorts of ways of saying why caring is so important, why togetherness, being-with each others, as a spiritual but also embodied ethics is important in a divided world

    Probing the Intergalactic medium properties using X-ray absorption from multiple tracers

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    Based on the Lambda Cold Dark Matter concordance cosmological model (ΛCDM), the majority of baryons exist in the Intergalactic medium (IGM). It is extremely challenging to observationally trace the IGM, especially at higher temperatures and low densities. Post reionisation, the vast majority of hydrogen and helium is ionized in the IGM and therefore, the observation of metals is essential for parametrising the IGM properties. My hypothesis is that there is significant absorption in the diffuse highly ionisied IGM and that this IGM column density increases with redshift. I use X-ray absorption in multiple tracers which yields information on the total absorbing column density of the matter between the observer and the source. Clear IGM detections require tracer sources that are bright, distant, and common enough to provide a good statistical sample of IGM lines of sight (LOS). To more accurately isolate any IGM contribution to spectral absorption, I examine each tracer host type to realistically model it, in addition to using appropriate intrinsic continuum curvature models. I test the robustness of the result from a number of perspectives. I examine the impact of the key underlying assumptions that affect the column density calculations including metallicity, ionisation and location of absorption. I look for any evidence of evolution in the parameters. In Chapters 2, 3, 4 and 5, I use gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), blazars and quasars (QSOs) to estimate IGM baryon column densities, metallicity, temperature, ionisation parameters and redshift distributions. My results for each tracer are presented in each of the respective chapters and collectively in Chapter 5 which includes comparative analysis. In conclusion, through the work in this thesis I demonstrate a consistent case for strong X-ray absorption in the IGM on the LOS to three different tracer types and that it is related to redshift. The results are consistent with the ΛCDM model for density, temperature and metallicity. Given these results, I would recommend that studies of distant objects should not follow the convention of assuming all X-ray absorption in excess of our Galaxy is attributed to the host galaxy, that the host is neutral and has solar metallicity. Instead, particularly at higher redshift, absorption in the IGM should be accounted for to give more accurate results for the tracer host properties