61,011 research outputs found

    Evaluation of economic loss caused by Indian crested porcupine (Hystrix indica) in agricultural land of district Muzaffarabad, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan

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    The Indian crested porcupine (Hystrix indica) is a vertebrate pest of agricultural lands and forest. The study was aimed to report the damage to local crops by the Indian crested porcupine (Hystrix indica) in the Muzaffarabad District. A survey was conducted to identify the porcupine-affected areas and assess the crop damage to the local farmers in district Muzaffarabad Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK) from May 2017 to October 2017. Around 19 villages were surveyed, and a sum of 191 semi-structured questionnaires was distributed among farmers. Crop damage was found highest in village Dhanni where a porcupine destroyed 175 Kg/Kanal of the crops. Regarding the total magnitude of crop loss, village Danna and Koomi kot were the most affected areas. More than half (51.8%) of the respondents in the study area suffered the economic loss within the range of 101-200,and(29.8, and (29.8%) of the people suffered losses in the range of 201-300 annually. Among all crops, maize (Zea mays) was found to be the most damaged crop ranging between 1-300 Kg annually. In the study area, porcupine also inflicted a lot of damages to some important vegetables, including spinach (Spinacia oleracea), potato (Solanum tuberosum) and onion (Allium cepa). It was estimated that, on average, 511Kg of vegetables are destroyed by porcupine every year in the agricultural land of Muzaffarabad. It was concluded that the Indian crested porcupine has a devastating effect on agriculture which is an important source of income and food for the local community. Developing an effective pest control strategy with the help of the local government and the Wildlife department could help the farmers to overcome this problem

    Metabolomic evaluation of PGPR defence priming in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars infected with Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (stripe rust)

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    Plant-microbe interactions are a phenomenal display of symbiotic/parasitic relationships between living organisms. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are some of the most widely investigated plant-beneficial microbes due to their capabilities in stimulating plant growth and development and conferring protection to plants against biotic and abiotic stresses. As such, PGPR-mediated plant priming/induced systemic resistance (ISR) has become a hot topic among researchers, particularly with prospects of applications in sustainable agriculture. The current study applies untargeted ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-high-definition mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HDMS) to investigate PGPR-based metabolic reconfigurations in the metabolome of primed wheat plants against Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tricti (Pst). A seed bio-priming approach was adopted, where seeds were coated with two PGPR strains namely Bacillus subtilis and Paenibacillus alvei (T22) and grown under controlled conditions in a glasshouse. The plants were infected with Pst one-week post-germination, followed by weekly harvesting of leaf material. Subsequent metabolite extraction was carried out for analysis on a UHPLC-HDMS system for data acquisition. The data was chemometrically processed to reveal the underlying trends and data structures as well as potential signatory biomarkers for priming against Pst. Results showed notable metabolic reprogramming in primary and secondary metabolism, where the amino acid and organic acid content of primed-control, primed-challenged and non-primed-challenged plants were differentially reprogrammed. Similar trends were observed from the secondary metabolism, in which primed plants (particularly primed-challenged) showed an up-regulation of phenolic compounds (flavonoids, hydroxycinnamic acids-HCAs- and HCA amides) compared to the non-primed plants. The metabolomics-based semi-quantitative and qualitative assessment of the plant metabolomes revealed a time-dependent metabolic reprogramming in primed-challenged and primed-unchallenged plants, indicating the metabolic adaptations of the plants to stripe rust infection over time

    Differential responses in some quinoa genotypes of a consortium of beneficial endophytic bacteria against bacterial leaf spot disease

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    Many effective plant-microbe interactions lead to biological changes that can stimulate plant growth and production. This study evaluated the effect of the interaction between quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) and endophytic bacterial strains on differential responses under biotic stress. Four strains of endophytic bacteria were used to inoculate three quinoa genotypes. Endophytic bacteria, isolated from the endosphere of healthy genotypes of quinoa plants, were used to evaluate their biocontrol activity against Pseudomonas syringae on quinoa plants, which causes leaf spot disease, depending on some different parameters. Quinoa genotype plants were treated with four treatments: pathogenic bacteria only (T1), internal bacteria only (T2), pathogenic bacteria + endogenous bacteria (T3), and untreated as the control (T4). The results indicated that there was a significant difference between chlorophyll content index of infected plants without bioagent (untreated) compared to plants bio-inoculated with endophytic bacteria. The highest mean disease incidence was on the plants without bacterial inoculum (90, 80, and 100%) for quinoa genotypes G1, G2, and G3, respectively. The results showed that there were significant differences in the weight of grains/plant, as the value ranged from 8.1 to 13.3 g when treated with pathogens (T1) compared to the treatment with pathogens and endogenous bacteria (T3), which ranged from 11.7 to 18.6 g/plant. Decreases in total aromatic amino acids appeared due to the pathogen infection, by 6.3, 22.8, and 24.1% (compared to the control) in G1, G2, and G3, respectively. On the other hand, genotype G3 showed the highest response in the levels of total aromatic and total neutral amino acids. The endophytic strains promoted quinoa seedling growth mainly by improving nutrient efficiency. This improvement could not be explained by their ability to induce the production of amino acids, showing that complex interactions might be associated with enhancement of quinoa seedling performance by endophytic bacteria. The endophytic bacterial strains were able to reduce the severity of bacterial leaf spot disease by 30, 40, and 50% in quinoa genotypes G1, G2, and G3, respectively, recording significant differences compared to the negative control. The results indicated that, G1 genotype was superior in different performance indicators (pathogen tolerance index, yield injury %, superiority measure and relative performance) for grain weight/plant under pathogen infection condition when treated with endophyte bacteria. Based on this study, these bacterial strains can be used as a biotechnology tool in quinoa seedling production and biocontrol to diminish the severity of bacterial leaf spot disease

    Changes in PRC1 activity during interphase modulate lineage transition in pluripotent cells

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    The potential of pluripotent cells to respond to developmental cues and trigger cell differentiation is enhanced during the G1 phase of the cell cycle, but the molecular mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Variations in polycomb activity during interphase progression have been hypothesized to regulate the cell-cycle-phase-dependent transcriptional activation of differentiation genes during lineage transition in pluripotent cells. Here, we show that recruitment of Polycomb Repressive Complex 1 (PRC1) and associated molecular functions, ubiquitination of H2AK119 and three-dimensional chromatin interactions, are enhanced during S and G2 phases compared to the G1 phase. In agreement with the accumulation of PRC1 at target promoters upon G1 phase exit, cells in S and G2 phases show firmer transcriptional repression of developmental regulator genes that is drastically perturbed upon genetic ablation of the PRC1 catalytic subunit RING1B. Importantly, depletion of RING1B during retinoic acid stimulation interferes with the preference of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) to induce the transcriptional activation of differentiation genes in G1 phase. We propose that incremental enrolment of polycomb repressive activity during interphase progression reduces the tendency of cells to respond to developmental cues during S and G2 phases, facilitating activation of cell differentiation in the G1 phase of the pluripotent cell cycle

    GENCODE: reference annotation for the human and mouse genomes in 2023

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    GENCODE produces high quality gene and transcript annotation for the human and mouse genomes. All GENCODE annotation is supported by experimental data and serves as a reference for genome biology and clinical genomics. The GENCODE consortium generates targeted experimental data, develops bioinformatic tools and carries out analyses that, along with externally produced data and methods, support the identification and annotation of transcript structures and the determination of their function. Here, we present an update on the annotation of human and mouse genes, including developments in the tools, data, analyses and major collaborations which underpin this progress. For example, we report the creation of a set of non-canonical ORFs identified in GENCODE transcripts, the LRGASP collaboration to assess the use of long transcriptomic data to build transcript models, the progress in collaborations with RefSeq and UniProt to increase convergence in the annotation of human and mouse protein-coding genes, the propagation of GENCODE across the human pan-genome and the development of new tools to support annotation of regulatory features by GENCODE. Our annotation is accessible via Ensembl, the UCSC Genome Browser and https://www.gencodegenes.org

    MIK2 is a candidate gene of the S-locus for sporophytic self-incompatibility (SSI) in chicory (Cichorium intybus, Asteraceae)

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    The Cichorium genus offers a unique opportunity to study the sporophytic self incompatibility (SSI) system, being composed of species characterized by highly efficient SI (C. intybus) and complete self compatibility (C. endivia). The chicory genome was used to map 7 previously identified SSI locus-associated markers. The region containing the S locus was restricted to an 4 M bp window on chromosome 5. Among the genes predicted in this region, MDIS1 INTERACTING RECEPTOR LIKE KINASE 2 (MIK2) was promising as a candidate for SSI. Its ortholog in Arabidopsis is involved in pollen stigma recognition reactions, and its protein structure is similar to that of S-receptor kinase (SRK), a key component of the SSI in the Brassica genus. The sequencing of MIK2 in chicory and endive accessions revealed two contrasting scenarios. In C. endivia, MIK2 was fully conserved even comparing different botanical varieties (smooth and curly). In C. intybus, 387 SNPs and 3 INDELs were identified when comparing accessions of different biotypes from the same botanical variety (radicchio). The SNP distribution throughout the gene was uneven, with hypervariable domains preferentially localized in the LRR-rich extracellular region, putatively identified as the receptor domain. The gene was hypothesized to be under positive selection, as the nonsynonymous mutations were more than double the synonymous ones (dN / dS = 2.17). An analogous situation was observed analyzing the first 500 bp of the MIK2 promoter: no SNPs were observed among the endive samples, whereas 44 SNPs and 6 INDELs were detected among the chicory samples. Further analyses are needed to confirm the role of MIK2 in SSI and to demonstrate whether the 23 species-specific nonsynonymous SNPs in the CDS and/or the species-specific 10 bp INDEL found in a CCAAT box region of the promoter are responsible for the contrasting sexual behaviors of the two species

    Epidemiology of neuropathic pain:an analysis of prevalence and associated factors in UK Biobank

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    Abstract. Introduction:. Previous epidemiological studies of neuropathic pain have reported a range of prevalences and factors associated with the disorder. Objectives:. This study aimed to verify these characteristics in a large UK cohort. Methods:. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted of 148,828 UK Biobank participants who completed a detailed questionnaire on chronic pain. The Douleur Neuropathique en Quatre Questions (DN4) was used to distinguish between neuropathic pain (NeuP) and non-neuropathic pain (non-NeuP) in participants with pain of at least 3 months' duration. Participants were also identified with less than 3 months' pain or without pain (NoCP). Multivariable regression was used to identify factors associated with NeuP compared with non-NeuP and NoCP, respectively. Results:. Chronic pain was present in 76,095 participants (51.1%). The overall prevalence of NeuP was 9.2%. Neuropathic pain was significantly associated with worse health-related quality of life, having a manual or personal service type occupation, and younger age compared with NoCP. As expected, NeuP was associated with diabetes and neuropathy, but also other pains (pelvic, postsurgical, and migraine) and musculoskeletal disorders (rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and fibromyalgia). In addition, NeuP was associated with pain in the limbs and greater pain intensity and higher body mass index compared with non-NeuP. Female sex was associated with NeuP when compared with NoCP, whereas male sex was associated with NeuP when compared with non-NeuP. Conclusion:. This is the largest epidemiological study of neuropathic pain to date. The results confirm that the disorder is common in a population of middle- to older-aged people with mixed aetiologies and is associated with a higher health impact than non-neuropathic pain