31,178 research outputs found

    Crime and Prejudice: Ming Criminal Justice as Seen in 16th Century Spanish Sources

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    胡安•冈萨雷斯•德•门多萨于1585年出版的 《中华大帝国史》第一次以西班牙语和葡萄 牙语全面整理了有关中国的记述。该书正面 记录了中国明朝司法制度,并探讨了这些司 法制度与当代西班牙和墨西哥司法制度之间 的巨大差别。其中包括对法律和公共框架的 曲解,公众对证人的质疑,多层面不同形式 的惩罚,经济上的惩罚以及死刑的场景。作 者在书中强调通过奖励和惩罚双重方式对各 级官员、下属大臣进行严格控制,以保证对 各级官员的选拔任用标准,这一点也曾在蒙 田对明代官员的评价中得到过体现。此外, 胡安•冈萨雷斯•德•门多萨还十分崇敬守护印 第安人的拉斯卡萨斯,他决定从他的文献中 删掉那些为对抗中国而向强硬派提供的所谓 正当权利的论辩,如洛阿尔卡所目睹的邪恶 和杜拉埃尼亚所描述的死刑等。 González de Mendoza’s book on China, published in 1585, compiled all the first narratives about China, both Portuguese and Spanish. It contains a highly positive account of Ming criminal justice in which he emphasizes those elements of Chinese justice that deeply contrasts with Spanish and Mexican practices: the legal and public frame of torture, the public questioning of witnesses, the multilayered revisions of penalties, the public placing of the monetary fines, and the mise en scène of the death penalty. He insistently highlights the strict control upon every layer of officers and inferior ministers through a double procedure of rewards and punishments that guarantees the high standing of Chinese officials, an appraisal that Montaigne would pick up in his extremely rare allusions to China. At the same time, González de Mendoza, a thorough admirer of father Las Casas, the defender of Indians, decided to omit from his sources those elements that could provide the hardliners with arguments, the just title, to confront China, such as the nefandous sin witnessed by Loarca and the death by a thousand cuts described by Dueñas

    Vivencias y Percepciones de los adolescentes en conflicto con la ley penal que cuentan con el servicio de apoyo laboral del Centro Juvenil de Diagnóstico y Rehabilitación “Lima” del PRONACEJ - MINJUSDH y de la Línea de Acción de Justicia Juvenil Restaurativa - MP

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    En la presente investigación buscamos explorar las vivencias y percepciones de los adolescentes, que siendo infractores de la ley penal, han sido beneficiarios con un servicio de apoyo laboral. Estos adolescentes se constituyen en la unidad de análisis del presente estudio, adicionalmente la información recogida ha sido complementada y confrontada con el recojo de información de los actores del servicio de apoyo laboral a los adolescentes para la consecución de su reinserción social. Se ha utilizado la metodología del estudio de caso, recogiéndose dos experiencias: una proveniente del Programa de Egresados e Inserción Laboral del PRONACEJ del Ministerio de Justicia y Derechos Humanos, que se ejecuta en el CJDR de “Lima” y la otra, de la Línea de Acción de la Justicia Juvenil Restaurativa (JJR) del Ministerio Público, que se ejecuta en el distrito fiscal del Lima y el Agustino, ambas ubicadas en la ciudad de Lima. Sobre el particular, se ha buscado conocer su proceso de intervención, desde lo indicado por los propios beneficios, lo que ha sido complementado con entrevistas y la evaluación final de los ejecutores. Ambas intervenciones tienen como mira utilizar estrategias de inserción laboral para el desistimiento de la infracción a la ley penal y por lo tanto, para su reinserción sociofamiliar. Entre los principales hallazgos se identifica que los adolescentes tienen una valoración positiva de la oportunidad laboral formal brindada, éstos destacan que los aprendizajes de la experiencia les resultan de utilidad para su futura actividad prosocial, y asimismo, se verifica como esta oportunidad laboral impacta positivamente en la construcción de una identidad alternativa a la delincuencial, sin embargo se hace necesario brindarles un aprendizaje sustentado en un enfoque de derecho, y en la experimentación de dinámicas de interacción favorables a la construcción de ciudadanía. Así también, se requiere gestar la estrategia desde perspectivas más articuladas y técnicas, a fin de lograr la consecución de los objetivos, y en donde los distintos actores identifiquen su rol en los procesos que favorecen al desistimiento de la conducta de infracción a la ley penal. Para dicho efecto, la gerencia social permite identificar y analizar los procesos, que permitan plantear recomendaciones y mejoras en la intervención de estos programas con los adolescentes involucrados en trasgresiones a la ley pena

    Penerapan Tindak Pidana Khalwat di Aceh (Studi Kasus Kota Banda Aceh, Lhokseumawe, dan Langsa)

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    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji dan menguraikan latar belakang dibalik rumusan tindak pidana khalwat dalam Qanun No. 6 Tahun 2014 tentang Hukum Jinayat, ingin menemukan dan menjelaskan persepsi masyarakat terhadap tindak pidana khalwat di Aceh, ingin menemukan dan membandingkan pertimbangan hakim dalam menjatuhkan pemidanaan terhadap pelaku tindak pidana khalwat di Aceh, dan ingin menemukan dan menjelaskan hukuman yang dapat memberikan efek jera kepada pelaku tindak pidana khalwat di Aceh. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode normatif-empiris dengan pendekatan undang-undang dan pendekatan kasus. Data primer adalah Wawancara, observasi dan dokumentasi, data sekundernya adalah Al-Qur`an; dan Undang-Undang yang serta buku/kitab dan artikel jurnal yang relevan. Hasil penelitian adalah; Pertama, Latar belakang rumusan pelarangan tindak pidana khalwat dalam Qanun No. 6 Tahun 2014 tentang Hukum Jinayat adalah untuk mencegah terjadinya jinayat yang lebih besar, yaitu zina. Pembentukan aturan jinayat khalwat dalam Qanun merupakan salah satu bentuk kepedulian Pemerintah Aceh terhadap regulasi “kesusilaan” yang mengarah kepada perbuatan jinayat zina. Kedua, Masyarakat sangat mendukung pembentukan aturan jinayat khalwat yang bertujuan demi kebaikan dan kemaslahatan ummat. Pengaturan terhadap jinayat khalwat adalah refleksi kehidupan masyarakat Aceh yang sangat Islami, sehingga perlindungan terhadap kehormatan diri dan keluarganya. Ketiga, Pertimbangan hakim dalam menjatuhkan pemidanaan terhadap pelaku jinayat khalwat didasarkan kepada Qanun No. 6 Tahun 2014. Apabila perbuatan pelaku jinayat khalwat memenuhi unsur-unsur pasal atau ketentuan yang dirumuskan dalam Qanun Jinayat, maka seseorang yang diduga telah melakukan jinayat khalwat dapat dijatuhi hukuman. Keempat, Hukuman khalwat sebagaimana dalam Qanun No. 6 Tahun 2014 adalah berupa ‘uqubat cambuk, membayar sejumlah denda berupa emas dan hukuman penjara. ‘Uqubat cambuk lebih dominan dibanding dua ‘uqubat lainnya. Penerapan jinayat secara umum dipandang efektif dan memberikan efek jera bagi pelaku pelanggaran khalwat. Khusus di Kota Banda Aceh tidak semua kasus diselesaikan, sebab kasus khalwat bagi pelajar dikembalikan kepada keluarganya untuk pembinaan

    Identifying and responding to people with mild learning disabilities in the probation service

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    It has long been recognised that, like many other individuals, people with learningdisabilities find their way into the criminal justice system. This fact is not disputed. Whathas been disputed, however, is the extent to which those with learning disabilities arerepresented within the various agencies of the criminal justice system and the ways inwhich the criminal justice system (and society) should address this. Recently, social andlegislative confusion over the best way to deal with offenders with learning disabilities andmental health problems has meant that the waters have become even more muddied.Despite current government uncertainty concerning the best way to support offenders withlearning disabilities, the probation service is likely to continue to play a key role in thesupervision of such offenders. The three studies contained herein aim to clarify the extentto which those with learning disabilities are represented in the probation service, toexamine the effectiveness of probation for them and to explore some of the ways in whichprobation could be adapted to fit their needs.Study 1 and study 2 showed that around 10% of offenders on probation in Kent appearedto have an IQ below 75, putting them in the bottom 5% of the general population. Study 3was designed to assess some of the support needs of those with learning disabilities in theprobation service, finding that many of the materials used by the probation service arelikely to be too complex for those with learning disabilities to use effectively. To addressthis, a model for service provision is tentatively suggested. This is based on the findings ofthe three studies and a pragmatic assessment of what the probation service is likely to becapable of achieving in the near future

    Consent and the Construction of the Volunteer: Institutional Settings of Experimental Research on Human Beings in Britain during the Cold War

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    This study challenges the primacy of consent in the history of human experimentation and argues that privileging the cultural frameworks adds nuance to our understanding of the construction of the volunteer in the period 1945 to 1970. Historians and bio-ethicists have argued that medical ethics codes have marked out the parameters of using people as subjects in medical scientific research and that the consent of the subjects was fundamental to their status as volunteers. However, the temporality of the creation of medical ethics codes means that they need to be understood within their historical context. That medical ethics codes arose from a specific historical context rather than a concerted and conscious determination to safeguard the well-being of subjects needs to be acknowledged. The British context of human experimentation is under-researched and there has been even less focus on the cultural frameworks within which experiments took place. This study demonstrates, through a close analysis of the Medical Research Council's Common Cold Research Unit (CCRU) and the government's military research facility, the Chemical Defence Experimental Establishment, Porton Down (Porton), that the `volunteer' in human experiments was a subjective entity whose identity was specific to the institution which recruited and made use of the subject. By examining representations of volunteers in the British press, the rhetoric of the government's collectivist agenda becomes evident and this fed into the institutional construction of the volunteer at the CCRU. In contrast, discussions between Porton scientists, staff members, and government officials demonstrate that the use of military personnel in secret chemical warfare experiments was far more complex. Conflicting interests of the military, the government and the scientific imperative affected how the military volunteer was perceived

    Elite perceptions of the Victorian and Edwardian past in inter-war England

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    It is often argued by historians that members of the cultivated Elite after 1918 rejected the pre-war past. or at least subjected it to severe denigration. This thesis sets out to challenge such a view. Above all, it argues that inter-war critics of the Victorian and Edwardian past were unable to reject it even if that was what they felt inclined to do. This was because they were tied to those periods by the affective links of memory, family, and the continually unfolding consequences of the past in the present. Even the severest critics of the pre-war world, such as Lytton Strachey, were less frequently dismissive of history than ambivalent towards it. This ambivalence, it is argued, helped to keep the past alive and often to humanise it. The thesis also explores more positive estimation of Victorian and Edwardian history between the wars. It examines nostalgia for the past, as well as instances of continuity of practice and attitude. It explores the way in which inter-war society drew upon aspects of Victorian and Edwardian history both as illuminating parallels to contemporary affairs and to understand directly why the present was shaped as it was. Again, this testifies to the enduring power of the past after 1918. There are three parts to this thesis. Part One outlines the cultural context in which writers contemplated the Victorian and Edwardian past. Part Two explores some of the ways in which history was written about and used by inter-war society. Part Three examines the ways in which biographical depictions of eminent Victorians after 1918 encouraged emotional negotiation with the pas

    Victims' Access to Justice in Trinidad and Tobago: An exploratory study of experiences and challenges of accessing criminal justice in a post-colonial society

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    This thesis investigates victims' access to justice in Trinidad and Tobago, using their own narratives. It seeks to capture how their experiences affected their identities as victims and citizens, alongside their perceptions of legitimacy regarding the criminal justice system. While there have been some reforms in the administration of criminal justice in Trinidad and Tobago, such reforms have not focused on victims' accessibility to the justice system. Using grounded theory methodology, qualitative data was collected through 31 in-depth interviews with victims and victim advocates. The analysis found that victims experienced interpersonal, structural, and systemic barriers at varying levels throughout the criminal justice system, which manifested as institutionalized secondary victimization, silencing and inequality. This thesis argues that such experiences not only served to appropriate conflict but demonstrates that access is often given in a very narrow sense. Furthermore, it shows a failure to encompass access to justice as appropriated conflicts are left to stagnate in the system as there is often very little resolution. Adopting a postcolonial lens to analyse victims' experiences, the analysis identified othering practices that served to institutionalize the vulnerability and powerlessness associated with victim identities. Here, it is argued that these othering practices also affected the rights consciousness of victims, delegitimating their identities as citizens. Moreover, as a result of their experiences, victims had mixed perceptions of the justice system. It is argued that while the system is a legitimate authority victims' endorsement of the system is questionable, therefore victims' experiences suggest that there is a reinforcement of the system's legal hegemony. The findings suggest that within the legal system of Trinidad and Tobago, legacies of colonialism shape the postcolonial present as the psychology and inequalities of the past are present in the interactions and processes of justice. These findings are relevant for policymakers in Trinidad and Tobago and other regions. From this study it is recognized that, to improve access to justice for victims, there needs to be a move towards victim empowerment that promotes resilience and enhances social capital. Going forward it is noted that there is a need for further research

    Developing creative methodologies: using lyric writing to capture young peoples’ experiences of the Youth Offending Services during the Covid19 pandemic

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    From Emerald via Jisc Publications RouterHistory: received 2021-10-05, rev-recd 2022-03-14, accepted 2022-03-15Article version: AMPublication status: AcceptedFunder: University of Chester QR funding - Covid19 callPurpose (limit 100 words) The Covid19 lockdowns (2020-2021) disrupted all aspects of usual functioning of the Criminal Justice System, the outcomes and impact of which are largely still unknown. The pandemic has affected individuals across the wider society, this includes a negatively impact on the social circumstances of children and young people involved within Youth Offending Services (YOS) (Her Majesty’s Inspectorate of Probation, 2020; Criminal Justice Joint Inspectorates, 2021). This population frequently represent those from marginalised circumstances and are rarely given the opportunity to participate meaningfully in the services they are involved in. Design/methodology/approach (limit 100 words) This paper outlines a creative methodology and method used to uncover the experiences and perceptions of young people undergoing an order within a YOS during the Covid19 lockdowns. The arts-based approach entailed a novel and creative method using a lyric artist to engage with young people through a virtual platform, supporting them to create lyrics about their experiences of the YOS during this time. Findings (limit 100 words) The artist developed a successful rapport with young people based on familiarity with, and passion for, music. He promoted their strengths, improving their confidence which was perceived to elicit more in-depth perspectives that might not have otherwise been obtained using more traditional methods. As such, the method and methodology outlined developed the young people’s social and communicative skills whilst producing meaningful feedback that can contribute to the YOS recovery plan and thus future of the service. Practical implications (limit 100 words) This paper reports on a novel arts-based research methodology, implemented to capture meaningful data from participants during the Covid19 pandemic. Originality/value (limit 100 words) This paper reports on a novel arts-based research methodology, implemented to capture meaningful data from participants during the Covid19 pandemic

    Supporting girls and young women victims of sexual harassment in schools : "me and you and everyone we know"

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    This article highlights an innovative project, across three European countries (Italy, Sweden and Romania), that used a pictorial co-design educational tool to empower young women to counter sexual harassment and abuse. Data is very hard to obtain on levels of sexual harassment and the project revealed that there was a need to educate female and male students, as well as professionals of its long-term impact. The co-designed cards generated discussion and comments both with the young participants and educational professionals. Focus groups were organised in the three countries with students using the co-design tool. What emerged from those focus groups are different attitudes towards sexual harassment and how this may affect girls and young women in the three participating countries. This article reflects upon the use of a transnational co-design tool to prevent sexual harassment and abuse in schools. The main aim was to promote a dialogue with young people on the complexity of issues surrounding this topic in order to promote change in this area. Findings from this project revealed that there was much variation between the three countries in a number of important areas, such as the support and knowledge base on the issue

    Metaphors of London fog, smoke and mist in Victorian and Edwardian Art and Literature

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    Julian Wolfreys has argued that after 1850 writers employed stock images of the city without allowing them to transform their texts. This thesis argues, on the contrary, that metaphorical uses of London fog were complex and subtle during the Victorian and Edwardian periods, at least until 1914. Fog represented, in particular, formlessness and the dissolution of boundaries. Examining the idea of fog in literature, verse, newspaper accounts and journal articles, as well as in the visual arts, as part of a common discourse about London and the state of its inhabitants, this thesis charts how the metaphorical appropriation of this idea changed over time. Four of Dickens's novels are used to track his use of fog as part of a discourse of the natural and unnatural in individual and society, identifying it with London in progressively more negative terms. Visual representations of fog by Constable, Turner, Whistler, Monet, Markino, O'Connor, Roberts and Wyllie and Coburn showed an increasing readiness to engage with this discourse. Social tensions in the city in the 1880s were articulated in art as well as in fiction. Authors like Hay and Barr showed the destruction of London by its fog because of its inhabitants' supposed degeneracy. As the social threat receded, apocalyptic scenarios gave way to a more optimistic view in the work of Owen and others. Henry James used fog as a metaphorical representation of the boundaries of gendered behaviour in public, and the problems faced by women who crossed them. The dissertation also examines fog and individual transgression, in novels and short stories by Lowndes, Stevenson, Conan Doyle and Joseph Conrad. After 1914, fog was no more than a crude signifier of Victorian London in literature, film and, later, television, deployed as a cliche instead of the subtle metaphorical idea discussed in this thesis
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