127,253 research outputs found

    Impacto del proceso de integraci贸n europea sobre las exportaciones de Castilla y Le贸n (1993-2007): un an谩lisis econom茅trico a partir de la ecuaci贸n de gravedad

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    27306Este trabajo analiza el impacto del proceso de integraci贸n europea sobre el volumen de exportaciones de Castilla y Le贸n durante el per铆odo 1993-2007. La metodolog铆a utilizada se basa en la estimaci贸n de una ecuaci贸n de gravedad, que constituye una herramienta 煤til en la modelizaci贸n de los flujos de comercio bilateral. Tras aplicar un an谩lisis de datos de panel, los resultados indican que la riqueza del pa铆s importador y de Castilla y Le贸n, as铆 como la distancia entre ellos, son las variables b谩sicas de la ecuaci贸n de gravedad que mejor explican el flujo exportador analizado. Respecto a los distintos acontecimientos vinculados al proceso de integraci贸n europea, nuestros hallazgos ponen de manifiesto que ni la pertenencia del pa铆s importador a la UE, ni el hecho de compartir una moneda com煤n, han ejercido un impacto favorable significativo sobre la cifra de exportaciones de Castilla y Le贸n.S

    The effect of peer-to-peer (P2P) accommodations on the local economy: evidence from Madrid

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    This paper investigates the effect of P2P accommodations on the local economy of the city of Madrid. We find that the arrival of Airbnb has fostered food and beverage services. We exploit the exogenous variation created by the timing and the unequal distribution of Airbnb listings across the urban geography to identify its effects on the number and employment of food and beverage services. Using an instrumental variable strategy, we find positive effects on both the number of restaurants and their employees: an increase in ten Airbnb rooms in a given census tract translates to one more restaurant, and the same increase in a given neighbourhood generates nine new tourist-related employees. The results are robust to sample composition, spatial spillovers and alternative measures of tourist-related activities. This paper contributes to the literature on the economic impacts of the platform economy on urban areas by providing evidence of positive economic externalities from P2P accommodations

    Crime and Prejudice: Ming Criminal Justice as Seen in 16th Century Spanish Sources

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    鑳″畨鈥㈠唸钀ㄩ浄鏂㈠痉鈥㈤棬澶氳惃浜1585骞村嚭鐗堢殑 銆婁腑鍗庡ぇ甯濆浗鍙层嬬涓娆′互瑗跨彮鐗欒鍜岃憽钀 鐗欒鍏ㄩ潰鏁寸悊浜嗘湁鍏充腑鍥界殑璁拌堪銆傝涔︽闈 璁板綍浜嗕腑鍥芥槑鏈濆徃娉曞埗搴︼紝骞舵帰璁ㄤ簡杩欎簺鍙 娉曞埗搴︿笌褰撲唬瑗跨彮鐗欏拰澧ㄨタ鍝ュ徃娉曞埗搴︿箣闂 鐨勫法澶у樊鍒傚叾涓寘鎷娉曞緥鍜屽叕鍏辨鏋剁殑 鏇茶В锛屽叕浼楀璇佷汉鐨勮川鐤戯紝澶氬眰闈笉鍚屽舰寮 鐨勬儵缃氾紝缁忔祹涓婄殑鎯╃綒浠ュ強姝诲垜鐨勫満鏅備綔 鑰呭湪涔︿腑寮鸿皟閫氳繃濂栧姳鍜屾儵缃氬弻閲嶆柟寮忓鍚 绾у畼鍛樸佷笅灞炲ぇ鑷h繘琛屼弗鏍兼帶鍒讹紝浠ヤ繚璇佸 鍚勭骇瀹樺憳鐨勯夋嫈浠荤敤鏍囧噯锛岃繖涓鐐逛篃鏇惧湪钂 鐢板鏄庝唬瀹樺憳鐨勮瘎浠蜂腑寰楀埌杩囦綋鐜般傛澶栵紝 鑳″畨鈥㈠唸钀ㄩ浄鏂㈠痉鈥㈤棬澶氳惃杩樺崄鍒嗗磭鏁畧鎶ゅ嵃 绗畨浜虹殑鎷夋柉鍗¤惃鏂紝浠栧喅瀹氫粠浠栫殑鏂囩尞涓 鍒犳帀閭d簺涓哄鎶椾腑鍥借屽悜寮虹‖娲炬彁渚涚殑鎵璋 姝e綋鏉冨埄鐨勮杈╋紝濡傛礇闃垮皵鍗℃墍鐩澒鐨勯偑鎭 鍜屾潨鎷夊焹灏间簹鎵鎻忚堪鐨勬鍒戠瓑銆 Gonz谩lez de Mendoza鈥檚 book on China, published in 1585, compiled all the first narratives about China, both Portuguese and Spanish. It contains a highly positive account of Ming criminal justice in which he emphasizes those elements of Chinese justice that deeply contrasts with Spanish and Mexican practices: the legal and public frame of torture, the public questioning of witnesses, the multilayered revisions of penalties, the public placing of the monetary fines, and the mise en sc猫ne of the death penalty. He insistently highlights the strict control upon every layer of officers and inferior ministers through a double procedure of rewards and punishments that guarantees the high standing of Chinese officials, an appraisal that Montaigne would pick up in his extremely rare allusions to China. At the same time, Gonz谩lez de Mendoza, a thorough admirer of father Las Casas, the defender of Indians, decided to omit from his sources those elements that could provide the hardliners with arguments, the just title, to confront China, such as the nefandous sin witnessed by Loarca and the death by a thousand cuts described by Due帽as

    Does international patent collaboration have an effect on entrepreneurship?

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    .Entrepreneurship is one of the main pillars of growth in any economy. Achieving a high rate of entrepreneurship in a region has become the priority objective of governments and firms. However, in many cases, new firm creation is conditioned by relations or collaboration in innovation with agents from other countries. Previous literature has analyzed the mechanisms that foster entrepreneurship. This paper attempts to shed light on the influence of international patent collaboration (IPC) on entrepreneurial activity at country level taking into account the timing of this relationship. An empirical study is proposed to verify whether IPC leads to greater entrepreneurship and to analyze the gestation period between international patenting actions and firm creation. Using the Generalized Method of Moments, the two hypotheses proposed were tested in a data panel of 30 countries for the period 2005鈥2017. Results show the influence of IPC in promoting entrepreneurship in the same year, but especially in the following year. The study offers implications for entrepreneurs and public agents. IPC affects the integration and interaction of international agents in a country, favors the production of new knowledge, and increases positive externalities in a territory. All this facilitates the creation of new companies with a high innovative component.S

    An谩lisis de la calidad del servicio que prestan las entidades bancarias y su repercusi贸n en la satisfacci贸n del cliente y la lealtad hacia la entidad

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    p. 79-107El objetivo de la investigaci贸n se ha encuadrado en determinar las percepciones de calidad que tienen los clientes sobre su entidad bancaria. Para ello, para contrastar el modelo se han utilizado ecuaciones estructurales por medio de m铆nimos cuadrados parciales conocido como PLS (Partial Least Square). El objetivo concreto ha sido analizar los factores que determinan la calidad del servicio que perciben los clientes de las entidades bancarias, entre los que se encuentran: i) aspecto operativo, ii) aspecto f铆sico, iii) nuevas tecnolog铆as, y iv) aspecto humano. Una vez determinada la fiabilidad y validez de la escala, se procedi贸 a verificar las tres hip贸tesis de la investigaci贸n. La primera hip贸tesis del modelo examina cada una de las relaciones de estos factores con la calidad del servicio, del que se resalta la gran influencia de los aspectos operativos en la percepci贸n de la calidad. La segunda hip贸tesis demuestra que la calidad del servicio es un antecedente de la satisfacci贸n del cliente. Y una tercera hip贸tesis verifica que la satisfacci贸n del cliente tiene influencia en la lealtad del cliente hacia la entidad.S

    Application of lactic acid bacteria for the biopreservation of meat products: A systematic review

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    .The increasing concern of consumers about food quality and safety and their rejection of chemical additives has promoted the breakthrough of the biopreservation field and the development of studies on the use of beneficial bacteria and their metabolites as potential natural antimicrobials for shelf life extension and enhanced food safety. Control of foodborne pathogens in meat and meat products represents a serious challenge for the food industry which can be addressed through the intelligent use of bio-compounds or biopreservatives. This article aims to systematically review the available knowledge about biological strategies based on the use of lactic acid bacteria to control the proliferation of undesirable microorganisms in different meat products. The outcome of the literature search evidenced the potential of several strains of lactic acid bacteria and their purified or semi-purified antimicrobial metabolites as biopreservatives in meat products for achieving longer shelf life or inhibiting spoilage and pathogenic bacteria, especially when combined with other technologies to achieve a synergistic effect.S

    Sponsorship image and value creation in E-sports

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    .E-sports games can drive the sports industry forward and sponsorship is the best way to engage consumers of this new sport. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of sponsorship image and consumer participation in co-creation consumption activities on fans鈥 sponsorship response (represented by the variables interest, purchase intention and word of mouth) in e-sports. Four antecedent variables build sponsorship image (i.e., ubiquity of sport, sincerity of sponsor, attitude to sponsor and team identification). A quantitative approach is used for the purposes of this study. Some 445 questionnaires were filled in by fans who watch e-sports in Spain; these are analyzed using partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). The outcomes show that sponsor antecedents are crucial factors if a sponsor wants to change their sponsorship image and influence sponsorship response, and that it is also possible to use participation to improve responsesS

    How Does Reciprocity Affect Undergraduate Student Orientation towards Stakeholders?

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    5987Nowadays, students are more aware of the impact of companies on their stakeholders and the need for properly handling their expectations to operationalize corporate social responsibility. Nevertheless, little is known about how certain individual traits may relate to their stance on the issue. This exploratory research contributes to stakeholder theory by analysing the e ect of the individual鈥檚 decision-making process, including the consideration of their social preferences, on their orientation toward stakeholder management. Here, we draw upon a theoretical model for resource-allocation decision-making consisting of reciprocal and non-reciprocal components. Our data, from undergraduate students enrolled in di erent degrees, were collected through a questionnaire and two social within-subject experiments (ultimatum and dictator games). Thus, our results show that the presence of a reciprocal component when decisions are made is positively linked to an instrumental orientation toward stakeholders. In addition, a greater non-reciprocal component in the decision-making process corresponds to a more normative orientation.S

    What is the importance of sperm subpopulations?

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    .The study of sperm subpopulations spans three decades. The origin, meaning, and practical significance, however, are less clear. Current technology for assessing sperm morphology (CASA-Morph) and motility (CASA-Mot) has enabled the accurate evaluation of these features, and there are many options for data classification. Subpopulations could occur as a result of the stage of development of each spermatozoon in the subpopulation. Spermatogenesis might contribute to the production of these subpopulations. Insights from evolutionary biology and recent molecular research are indicative of the diversity among male gametes that could occur from unequal sharing of transcripts and other elements through cytoplasmic bridges between spermatids. Sperm cohorts exiting the gonads would contain different RNA and protein contents, affecting the spermatozoon physiology and associations with the surrounding environmental milieu. Subsequently, these differences could affect how spermatozoa interact with the environmental milieu (maturation, mixing with seminal plasma, and interacting with the environmental milieu, or female genital tract and female gamete). The emergence of sperm subpopulations as an outcome of evolution, related to the reproductive strategies of the species, genital tract structures, and copulatory and fertilization processes. This kind of approach in determining the importance of sperm subpopulations in fertilization capacity should have a practical impact for conducting reproductive technologies, inspiring and enabling new ways for the more efficient use of spermatozoa in the medical, animal breeding, and conservation fields. This manuscript is a contribution to the Special Issue in memory of Dr. Duane GarnerS

    Balancing the urban stomach: public health, food selling and consumption in London, c. 1558-1640

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    Until recently, public health histories have been predominantly shaped by medical and scientific perspectives, to the neglect of their wider social, economic and political contexts. These medically-minded studies have tended to present broad, sweeping narratives of health policy's explicit successes or failures, often focusing on extraordinary periods of epidemic disease viewed from a national context. This approach is problematic, particularly in studies of public health practice prior to 1800. Before the rise of modern scientific medicine, public health policies were more often influenced by shared social, cultural, economic and religious values which favoured maintaining hierarchy, stability and concern for 'the common good'. These values have frequently been overlooked by modern researchers. This has yielded pessimistic assessments of contemporary sanitation, implying that local authorities did not care about or prioritise the health of populations. Overly medicalised perspectives have further restricted historians' investigation and use of source material, their interpretation of multifaceted and sometimes contested cultural practices such as fasting, and their examination of habitual - and not just extraordinary - health actions. These perspectives have encouraged a focus on reactive - rather than preventative - measures. This thesis contributes to a growing body of research that expands our restrictive understandings of pre-modern public health. It focuses on how public health practices were regulated, monitored and expanded in later Tudor and early Stuart London, with a particular focus on consumption and food-selling. Acknowledging the fundamental public health value of maintaining urban foodways, it investigates how contemporaries sought to manage consumption, food production waste, and vending practices in the early modern City's wards and parishes. It delineates the practical and political distinctions between food and medicine, broadly investigates the activities, reputations of and correlations between London's guild and itinerant food vendors and licensed and irregular medical practitioners, traces the directions in which different kinds of public health policy filtered up or down, and explores how policies were enacted at a national and local level. Finally, it compares and contrasts habitual and extraordinary public health regulations, with a particular focus on how perceptions of and actual food shortages, paired with the omnipresent threat of disease, impacted broader aspects of civic life
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