9,596 research outputs found

    Empirical Examinations of Conflicts and Contradictions in Architecture, Land and Suburban Sprawl: The Case of Tamale, Ghana

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    Tamale, like all the major cities in Ghana is confronted with a myriad of challenges. These challenges range from housing development without planning permission, sprawl and consequent suburban development. Based on a case study approach within the qualitative research methodology, a total of 738 adult population from four sectors in Tamale were sampled and interviewed to solicit their views on land, architecture, urban sprawl and suburban development in Tamale. This study in conclusion recommends an integrated approach to address architectural, land management and planning issues for the benefit of land and property owners as well as providing prospective developers access to land to enhance the economic and physical image of Tamale as an evolving metropolisKeywords: conflicts, contradictions, suburban sprawl, architecture, land, Tamale-Ghana

    `A novel, spicy delicacy': tamales, advertising, and late 19th-century imaginative geographies of Mexico

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    This article explores how the tamale entered the national market as a mass-produced foodstuff at the end of 19th century. Closely reading advertising images, the article examines how the Armour Packing Company placed their chicken tamale in relation to imaginative geographies of Mexico from this era. Through tracing the symbolic transformations of the tamale from its existence in the street life of the late 19th century US to the nation-wide advertising campaign initiated by the Armour Packing Company in 1898, this article will highlight some of the shifting meanings of the tamale as seen in American travel literature, novels, and popular magazines of the time. That the marketing and symbolic transformation of the tamale in advertising coincide with the escalation and development of the Spanish-American War, American imperialism, and changing notions of race and place in this era has particular implication for the geographies of knowledge associated with ethnic foods and has wider import for the construction of race, identity, and difference at the close of 19th century

    Emerging Sexual Ethics and the Erosion of African Ethos

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    The emerging sexual ethics that characterise the contemporary society, remains new to Africa, a phase of the erosion of African ethos, and a negation of the sacredness and classical norms of sex, which deserves to be addressed by all and sundry. It is a contemporary trend brought to fore by homosexuals, bisexuals and transsexuals, among which are the radical feminists, who indoctrinate many with the practice and continuously push very hard for legalisation and acceptance by all cultures and religions. But interestingly, many cultures and religions still remain opposed to the practice and its evolved ethics since they abuse human sexuality and African ethos. Clearly, adherents and feminists of the ill-practices with the new sex ethics have lost touch with moral sanity and the metaphysical Being, God. Only worthwhile cultural traits need be borrowed into and imbibed by other cultures in contact. The rising ugly development can best be addressed through strong opposing legislations, the sustenance of cultural and moral norms and values (ethics) and attitudinal change

    Demographic Factors Predicting Turnover Intentions in Tamale Technical University

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    The study sought to understand demographic factors predicting turnover intentions in Tamale Technical University. Literature was reviewed in areas of turnover and the following demographic factors: age, gender, education, tenure, marital status and income. Correlation design and quantitative strategy were used in this study. Keywords: Demographic Factors, Turnover, Technical Universities, Tamale Technical University (TaTU)

    Nutrient availability as a driver of soil greenhouse gas fluxes and nitrogen leaching in a native tropical forest and large-scale sugarcane plantations in north-western Uganda

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    Soil macronutrient availability (particularly nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P)) is a crucial abiotic control for the cycling of carbon (C) and N in terrestrial ecosystems. However, em-pirical evidence on macronutrient regulation of soil greenhouse gas (GHG; carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O)) and N leaching fluxes from tropical forests and agricultural systems in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is still lacking. Yet, currently, SSA ac-counts for nearly one-third of all tropical forests. It is also expected to become a hotspot for increased N deposition, large-scale deforestation, and agricultural intensification in the near future. Hence, high-resolution measurements (spatially and temporally) on C and N fluxes from SSA terrestrial ecosystems are needed to constrain global C and N budgets properly. Thus, this PhD study evaluated the regulation effect of soil macronutrients on soil GHG and N leaching fluxes in a nutrient-limited tropical forest and a fertilized sugarcane plantation in north-western Uganda. The PhD study is based upon three interconnected work packages (WP). In WP1, it is investigated how soil GHG fluxes (CO2, CH4, and N2O) were affected by mac-ronutrient limitations in a Ugandan tropical forest. Hence, a large-scale nutrient manipula-tion experiment (NME) was setup in Budongo Forest Reserve consisting of four times repli-cated plots with N, P, N + P, and control treatments. In every replicate plot, soil CO2, CH4, and N2O fluxes were measured monthly (between May 2019 and June 2020) using static vented chamber bases. The study findings show that N addition (N and N + P) resulted in significantly higher N2O fluxes in the transitory phase (0-28 days (d) after fertilization). N fertilization likely increased soil N beyond the microbial immobilization and plant nutri-tional demands, leaving the excess to nitrification or denitrification. Prolonged N fertiliza-tion, however, did not elicit a significant response in background N2O fluxes (measured more than 28 d after fertilization). P fertilization marginally and significantly increased transitory and background CH4 consumption, probably because it enhanced methanotrophic activity. Adding N and P together (N + P) resulted in larger CO2 effluxes in the transitory phase, suggesting a possible co-limitation of both N and P on soil respiration. Heterotrophic (microbial) CO2 effluxes were significantly higher than the autotrophic (root) CO2 effluxes across all treatment plots, with microbes contributing about two-thirds of the total soil CO2 effluxes. However, neither heterotrophic nor autotrophic respiration significantly differed between treatments. In WP2, it is assessed how forest conversion to intensively fertilized sugarcane plantations affected soil GHG fluxes (CO2, CH4, and N2O). Here, soil GHG fluxes from the control plots in WP1 were compared to those measured in every treatment plot of a completely random-ized design (CRD) experiment in a sugarcane plantation. The CRD experiment was estab-lished in a 5.6-hectare ratoon sugarcane field 6 km south of the forest NME. It consisted of fertilizer treatments (low, standard, and high) that represented a gradient of N fertilization rates used by sugarcane farmers in north-western Uganda. Similarly (like in the NME), all the CRD treatments were replicated four times. Soil GHG fluxes were determined with static vented chambers intensively in the six months that followed fertilization before switching to monthly measurements for the remaining period of the sampling campaign. Additionally, for every land use, fine root biomass was determined based on 20 x 20 x 10 cm soil mono-liths while soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks were determined based on oven-dry bulk densi-ties and SOC concentrations in the first 1-meter soil depth. Soil CO2 effluxes were higher under sugarcane compared to the forest because of the higher autotrophic respiration from the sugarcane’s fine root biomass and the microbial decomposition of the sugarcane’s larger SOC stocks. Conversely, soil CH4 uptake under sugarcane was three times lower than under forest, owing to the likely alteration of methanotroph abundance upon conversion. Likewise, soil N2O emissions were much smaller under sugarcane than in the forest because excess N from fertilizer addition in the sugarcane was either lost through leaching or taken up by the sugarcane crop. All the results combined demonstrate that even with the higher soil CO2 effluxes under sugarcane compared to the forest, the fact that there was higher SOC seques-tration in sugarcane plantations of different ages relative to the native forest, suggests that sugarcane systems in the study area acted as a C sink since the uptake of CO2 far exceeds SOM mineralization. However, the SOC sequestration under sugarcane does not offset the initial significant loss in the above and belowground biomass C loss immediately after for-est conversion. Moreover, the C sink under sugarcane can change if CO2-equivalents related to N2O and CH4 fluxes a considered in the calculation of the sugarcane’s C footprint. In WP3, it is evaluated how increasing N fertilization rates affected N dynamics, productivi-ty, and profitability of sugarcane plantations established on Ferralsols. Here, soil N2O fluxes from WP2 were used in combination with the measured N leaching fluxes and field fresh weight (yield/biomass) from the respective treatment plots of the CRD experiment estab-lished in WP2. N leaching fluxes were determined based on drainage fluxes estimated with the Leaching Estimation and Chemistry Model and leachate N concentrations obtained from suction cup lysimeters installed at the soil depth of 90 cm. However, estimation of N leach-ing fluxes was limited by the lack of site-specific measurements of soil hydraulic properties and pedotransfer functions (PTFs) trained and calibrated for Ferralsols in tropical Africa. This challenge was overcome by testing a suite of American, Brazilian, and European PTFs for their suitability in determining soil hydraulic properties for the study test site. Sugarcane field fresh weight was estimated by randomly harvesting four (1 m x 1 m) quadrants in eve-ry replicate plot. In WP3, it is demonstrated that three of the five tested PTFs reliably esti-mated drainage fluxes for the study test site in Uganda based on the match between the measured and predicted soil matric water potentials. Therefore, despite the tested PTFs be-ing developed using American, Brazilian, and European soil datasets, some of them were robust enough to be used outside their training and validation geographical confines with a satisfactory degree of accuracy. N leaching fluxes marginally increased when N rates were increased from low to standard but significantly when the N rates exceeded the standard rate. The measured soil N2O emissions were unaffected by N fertilization. Sugarcane yields did not respond to increasing N rates, despite a significant to marginal increase in crop N uptake between low and standard N rates and at N rates higher than the standard, respective-ly. All the findings from WP3 suggest that surpassing the standard N rate for sugarcane in north-western Uganda would be less economically viable since it would only marginally increase yields, while the substantial increase in N leaching will affect groundwater quality. Additionally, despite demonstrating that sugarcane cultivation can still be profitable at low-er-than-standard N rates since part of the N requirement is met by mineralizing the high soil organic matter levels in sugarcane fields, it remains unreconciled from this short-term study whether reducing N rates below the standard N rate will not counterintuitively lower SOC stocks in the long term. The high SOC stocks under sugarcane reflect the long-term C input dynamics obtained with the standard N rates

    Rural-urban food, nutrient and virtual water flows in selected West African cities

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    Food consumption / Water quality / Nutrients / Urban agricuture / Food production
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