106 research outputs found

    Review Of Changes In Income Inequality Within U.S. Metropolitain Areas By J.F. Madden

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    Deriving The GLS Transformation Parameter In Elementary Panel Data Models

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    The Generalized Least Squares (GLS) transformation that eliminates serial correlation in the error terms is central to a complete understanding of the relationship between the pooled OLS, random effects, and fixed effects estimators. A significant hurdle to attainment of that understanding is the calculation of the parameter that delivers the desired transformation. This paper derives this critical parameter in the benchmark case typically used to introduce these estimators using nothing more than elementary statistics (mean, variance, and covariance) and the quadratic formula

    Poverty: A Very Short Introduction

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    No one wants to live in poverty. Few people would want others to do so. Yet, we find ourselves in a situation where millions of people worldwide live in poverty. According to the World Bank in 2010, 1.2 billion people lived below the extreme poverty line with an income of US 1.25orlessadayand2.4billionlivedonlessthanUS1.25 or less a day and 2.4 billion lived on less than US 2 a day. Why is that? What has been done about it in the past? And what is being done about it now? In this Very Short Introduction Philip N. Jefferson explores how the answers to these questions lie in the social, political, economic, educational, and technological processes that impact all of us throughout our lives. The degree of vulnerability is all that differentiates us. He shows how a person\u27s level of vulnerability to adverse changes in their life is very much dependent on the circumstances of their birth, including where their family lived, the schools they attended, whether it was peacetime or wartime, whether they had access to clean water, and whether they are male or female. Arguing that while poverty is ancient and enduring, the conversation about it is always new and evolving, Jefferson looks at the history of poverty, and the practical and analytical efforts we have made to eradicate it, and the prospects for further poverty alleviation in the future

    Does Monetary Policy Affect Relative Educational Unemployment Rates?

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    Liberal Arts Colleges And The Production Of PhD Economists

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    Data from the National Science Foundation (2014) indicate that at least one PhD in economics was awarded to a Swarthmore College graduate in every year since 1966. The authors’ purpose in this article is to consider factors that may have contributed to the high number of PhDs in economics awarded to Swarthmore College graduates. While there is little doubt that self-selection plays a significant role, they describe curricular and environmental aspects of the economics department at Swarthmore that may have contributed to this outcome

    Adolf Dragičević: Politička ekonomija prijelaznog društva

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    This article examines the dynamic relationship between macroeconomic performance and measures of poverty in the United States. The article is organized as follows. Section 2 presents insights on the relationship between poverty and macroeconomic performance that emerge from the literature. The emphasis is on empirical studies from 1986 to 2011. Section 3 provides a snapshot of the change in poverty over National Bureau of Economic Research-dated recessions for a variety of poverty measures. Section 4 uses vector autoregressions (VARs) to characterize the response of poverty to innovations in various social indicators and measures of macroeconomic performance. Section 5 expands the empirical analysis to include alternative measures of poverty—a consumption-based poverty rate constructed by Meyer and Sullivan (2010) and an income-based poverty rate constructed by Broda and colleagues (2009) by using a consumer price index that has been adjusted for substitution and quality bias. Section 6 conducts a forecasting exercise for income poverty and consumption poverty. Section 7 concludes and offers suggestions for future research

    Estimating nest-level phenology and reproductive success of colonial seabirds using time-lapse cameras

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    1.Collecting spatially extensive data on phenology and reproductive success is important for seabird conservation and management, but can be logistically challenging in remote regions. Autonomous time‐lapse camera systems offer an opportunity to provide such coverage. 2.We describe a method to estimate nest‐level breeding phenology and reproductive success of colonial pygoscelid penguins using photographs from time‐lapse cameras. The method derives from stereotypical patterns of nest attendance, where predominantly two adults are present before and during laying, but switch to one adult during incubation. The switch approximates the date of clutch completion and is estimated by fitting a smoothing spline to daily nest attendance data, identifying candidate dates that switch from two adults to one and selecting the date when the first derivative of the spline is minimized. Clutch initiation and hatch dates are then estimated from the mean, species‐specific interval between laying (pygoscelid penguins typically lay two eggs) and the duration of the incubation period. We estimated these intervals for each species from historical field data. The phenology is adjusted when photographs indicate egg or chick presence prior to their estimated lay or hatch dates. The number of chicks alive in each study nest on its crèche date determines reproductive success estimates. The method was validated with concurrent direct observations for each species and then applied to a camera network in the Antarctic Peninsula region to demonstrate its utility. 3.Mean egg laying and incubation intervals from direct observations were similar within species across sites. In the validation study, the mean clutch initiation, hatch and crèche dates were generally equivalent between photographs and direct observations. Estimates of reproductive success were identical. Applying the method to a time‐lapse network suggested relatively high reproductive success for all species across the region and corroborated general understanding of latitudinal trends and species‐level plasticity in phenology. 4.The method accurately estimated phenology and reproductive success relative to direct observations and appears well‐suited to operationalize regional time‐lapse camera networks. The estimation method should be applicable for other seabirds with stereotypical nest attendance patterns from which breeding phenology could be estimated
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