99 research outputs found

    Table1_Noisy condition and three-point shot performance in skilled basketball players: the limited effect of self-talk.xlsx

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    In modern basketball, the three-point shot plays an important tactical role. Basketball players often face the distraction from audience and opponents, necessitating psychological skill to maintain their performance. The study examined the effects of self-talk interventions on the three-point shot performance under quiet and noisy conditions. It involved 42 national second-level basketball players and used a 2 (Condition: quiet condition, noisy condition) × 3 (Intervention: control group, motivational self-talk, instructional self-talk) mixed design to investigate the performance of the static and dynamic three-point shots tasks. The results revealed that the static three-point shot score was significantly lower in noisy condition compared to quiet condition (p = 0.016), while the main effect of Intervention and the interaction effect of Condition × Intervention were not significant. Post-hoc analysis indicated that only the control group showed significantly lower scores in the noisy condition (p = 0.043). For the dynamic three-point shots performance, there were no significant main effects of Intervention or Condition, nor any significant interaction effect between Condition and Intervention. In conclusion, noise distraction negatively affects the static three-point shots task, and although self-talk interventions can mitigate such negative effects, their effectiveness is limited for dynamic three-point shots task with high physical demands.</p

    Synthesis, characterization and evaluation of tinidazole-loaded mPEG–PDLLA (10/90) <i>in situ</i> gel forming system for periodontitis treatment

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    <p>Traditional <i>in situ</i> gel forming systems are potential applications for parenteral administration but always accompanied with burst release. To overcome this limitation, the tinidazole (TNZ)-loaded <i>in situ</i> gel forming system using a diblock copolymer, monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol)–block-poly(d,l-lactide) (mPEG–PDLLA), was designed. The formulation of the mPEG–PDLLA-based TNZ <i>in situ</i> gel forming system contained 5% (w/w) TNZ, 0.4% glycerol, 5 ml <i>N</i>-methyl pyrrolidone (NMP) and 35% (w/w) mPEG–PDLLA. The <i>in situ</i> gel forming system showed sustained TNZ release over 192 h with low burst effect (around 7% in the first 8 h) in the <i>in vitro</i> release study. Additionally, <i>in vivo</i> studies were performed on rabbits with ligature-induced periodontitis, and the concentration of TNZ in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) as well as the pharmacokinetic parameters was calculated and the pharmacological effect of TNZ-loaded <i>in situ</i> gel forming (mPEG–PDLLA)-based system was found effective. Finally, histological studies revealed that the gel was a safe formulation with low irritation. The desirable drug release kinetics combined with the excellent <i>in vivo</i> characteristics highlight the potential of the gel in the treatment of periodontitis. Therefore, these results confirmed that the TNZ-loaded <i>in situ</i> gel forming mPEG–PDLLA-based system could reduce burst release of TNZ and act as a sustained-release and injectable drug depot for periodontitis treatment.</p

    In-Situ Stability Control of Energy-Producing Anaerobic Biological Reactors through Novel Use of Ion Exchange Fibers

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    Anaerobic biological treatment of high-strength organic industrial wastes is preferred over aerobic treatment as it produces a methane-rich biogas, has much lower energy requirements, and produces significantly less biosolids. Process stability and reactor failure are of concern, however, for waste streams that exhibit large variations in organic loading, which can cause detrimental pH fluctuations, and that have the potential for accidental input of toxic metals. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that the use of ion exchange fibers (IXFs) can provide passive resilience to these failure modes, without requiring operator oversight or reactive process control via chemical addition. IXFs have the advantage of rapid kinetics due to their small size, and they can be readily inserted and withdrawn as woven mats or porous pillows. This approach is demonstrated here using the weak-acid IXF FIBAN X-1 and the strong-base FIBAN A-1. FIBAN X-1 passively stabilized anaerobic reactors by (i) buffering pH fluctuations resulting from organic overloading due to both an increase in organic concentration and a decrease in hydraulic residence time and (ii) moderating shock-loads of copper and nickel. FIBAN X-1 also retained ∼95% of its exchange capacity after one year of operation in anaerobic reactors, demonstrating its long-term performance. In addition, FIBAN A-1 stabilized anaerobic reactors to input of chromate. These results demonstrate that IXFs can be used to passively stabilize anaerobic biological reactors from upset and failure and that this technology can be used to enhance energy recovery from high-strength organic waste streams

    Pearson’s Principle Inspired Generalized Strategy for the Fabrication of Metal Hydroxide and Oxide Nanocages

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    Designing a general route for rational synthesis of a series or families of nanomaterials for emerging applications has become more and more fascinating and vital in the view of nanoscience and nanotechnology. Herein, we explore a general strategy for fabricating uniform nanocages of metal hydroxides (MHs) and metal oxides (MOs). A template-assisted route inspired by Pearson’s hard and soft acid–base (HSAB) principle was employed for synthesizing MH nanocages via meticulous selection of the coordinating etchant as well as optimization of the reaction conditions. The concept of “coordinating etching” is successfully achieved in this work. This unique route shows potential in designing well-defined and high-quality MH nanocages with varying components, shell thicknesses, shapes, and sizes at room temperature. Consequently, porous MO nanocages can be obtained readily just through appropriate thermal treament of the respective MH nanocages. The overall strategy present in this work extends the application of the HSAB principle in nanoscience and offers a unqiue clue for rational fabrication of hollow (porous) and/or amorphous structures on the nanoscale, where these nanocages may present promising potential for various applications

    Surface Diffusion Barriers and Catalytic Activity Driven by Terminal Groups at Zeolite Catalysts

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    Defects that commonly exist on the surface of zeolites pose notable mass transport constraints and influence the catalytic performance. The mechanism underlying the surface defects inducing molecular transport limitations, however, is not fully understood. Herein, we use versatile spectroscopy, imaging techniques, and multiscale simulations to investigate the effect of surface defects on the molecular surface transport in zeolites, intending to establish the terminal structure–mass transport–performance relationship. Isolated silanol, which represents the foremost and eventual chemical defective accessible site at zeolite termination for guest molecules from the bulk fluid phase into zeolites or vice versa, is taken as a showcase. We demonstrate that isolated silanol at H-SAPO-34 zeolite termination not only enhances the adsorptive interaction between the polar molecules/alkenes and interface but also narrows the local 8-membered-ring pore at the external surface. The exterior surface with more isolated silanol could cause a higher diffusion barrier and hamper the accessibility of intracrystalline active sites. This work is expected to shed light on the mechanism underlying the zeolite catalyst upgrading via terminal surface modifications at zeolites

    Changes in network density of three groups in three days.

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    <p>Results are expressed as mean ± SEM of the whole group (n = 6).</p><p>*<i>p</i><0.05,</p><p>**<i>p</i><0.01, ANOVA one-way post hoc Newman–Keuls test. Control  =  no propofol anesthesia; pro = 0.5 mg•kg<sup>−1</sup>•min<sup>−1</sup>, 2 h; PRO = 0.9 mg•kg<sup>−1</sup>•min<sup>−1</sup>, 2 h.</p

    Clustering coefficient of LFPs functional connectivity across three groups.

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    <p>(A) Theta-band LFPs; (B) Gamma-band LFPs. Error bars represent standard error. * <i>p</i><0.05, ** <i>p</i><0.01, ANOVA one-way post hoc Newman–Keuls test. Control  =  no propofol anesthesia; pro = 0.5 mg•kg<sup>−1</sup>•min<sup>−1</sup>, 2 h; PRO = 0.9 mg•kg<sup>−1</sup>•min<sup>−1</sup>, 2 h.</p

    Network density of LFPs functional connectivity across three groups.

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    <p>(A) Theta-band LFPs; (B) Gamma-band LFPs. Error bars represent standard error. * <i>p</i><0.05, ** <i>p</i><0.01, ANOVA one-way post hoc Newman–Keuls test. Control  =  no propofol anesthesia; pro = 0.5 mg•kg<sup>−1</sup>•min<sup>−1</sup>, 2 h; PRO = 0.9 mg•kg<sup>−1</sup>•min<sup>−1</sup>, 2 h.</p
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