207 research outputs found

    Perfect transfer of multiple excitations in quantum networks

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    We present a general formalism to the problem of perfect state-transfer (PST), where the state involves multiple excitations of the quantum network. A key feature of our formalism is that it allows for inclusion of nontrivial interactions between the excitations. Hence, it is perfectly suited to addressing the problem of PST in the context of various types of physical realizations. The general formalism is also flexible enough to account for situations where multiple excitations are "focused" onto the same site.Comment: close to the version published in Phys. Rev. A. In version 2, a typo has been corrected in Sec. III

    Cavity-enabled high-dimensional quantum key distribution

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    High-dimensional quantum key distribution (QKD) offers the possibility of encoding multiple bits of key on a single entangled photon pair. An experimentally promising approach to realizing this is to use energy–time entanglement. Currently, however, the control of very high-dimensional entangled photons is challenging. We present a simple and experimentally compact approach, which is based on a cavity that allows one to measure two different bases: the time of arrival and another that is approximately mutually unbiased to the arrival time. We quantify the errors in the setup, due both to the approximate nature of the mutually unbiased measurement and as a result of experimental errors. It is shown that the protocol can be adapted using a cut-off so that it is robust against the considered errors, even within the regime of up to 10 bits per photon pair

    Security of high-dimensional quantum key distribution protocols using Franson interferometers

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    Franson interferometers are increasingly being proposed as a means of securing high-dimensional energy-time entanglement-based quantum key distribution (QKD) systems. Heuristic arguments have been proposed that purport to demonstrate the security of these schemes. We show, however, that such systems are vulnerable to attacks that localize the photons to several temporally separate locations. This demonstrates that a single pair of Franson interferometers is not a practical approach to securing high-dimensional energy-time entanglement based QKD. This observations leads us to investigate the security of modified Franson-based-protocols, where Alice and Bob have two or more Franson interferometers. We show that such setups can improve the sensitivity against attacks that localize the photons to multiple temporal locations. While our results do not constituting a full security proof, they do show that a single pair of Franson interferometers is not secure and that multiple such interferometers could be a promising candidate for experimentally realizable high-dimensional QKD.Comment: 14 pages (single column format

    Communication in quantum networks of logical bus topology

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    Perfect state transfer (PST) is discussed in the context of passive quantum networks with logical bus topology, where many logical nodes communicate using the same shared media, without any external control. The conditions under which, a number of point-to-point PST links may serve as building blocks for the design of such multi-node networks are investigated. The implications of our results are discussed in the context of various Hamiltonians that act on the entire network, and are capable of providing PST between the logical nodes of a prescribed set in a deterministic manner.Comment: 9 pages, 1 figur

    Coexistence of qubit effects

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    Two quantum events, represented by positive operators (effects), are coexistent if they can occur as possible outcomes in a single measurement scheme. Equivalently, the corresponding effects are coexistent if and only if they are contained in the ranges of a single (joint) observable. Here we give several equivalent characterizations of coexistent pairs of qubit effects. We also establish the equivalence between our results and those obtained independently by other authors. Our approach makes explicit use of the Minkowski space geometry inherent in the four-dimensional real vector space of selfadjoint operators in a two-dimensional complex Hilbert space

    Medium-range terrestrial free-space QKD performance modelling and analysis

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    Medium-range terrestrial free-space quantum key distribution systems enable widespread secure networked communications in dense urban environments, where it would be infeasible to install a large number of short optical fibre links. Such networks need to perform over a wide range of conditions and their design has to balance key rate maximisation versus robust key generation over the greatest range of circumstances. Practicalities, such as manufacturability and deployment, further constrain the design space. Here, we examine challenges in translating experiment into engineering reality and identify efficient BB84 weak coherent pulse-decoy state protocol parameter regimes suitable for medium-range QKD systems considering likely system performance and environmental conditions

    Multicentre service evaluation of presentation of newly diagnosed cancers and type 1 diabetes in children in the UK during the COVID-19 pandemic

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    Background: The COVID-19 pandemic led to changes in patterns of presentation to emergency departments. Child health professionals were concerned that this could contribute to the delayed diagnosis of life-threatening conditions, including childhood cancer (CC) and type 1 diabetes (T1DM). Our multicentre, UK-based service evaluation assessed diagnostic intervals and disease severity for these conditions.Methods: We collected presentation route, timing and disease severity for children with newly diagnosed CC in three principal treatment centres and T1DM in four centres between 1 January and 31 July 2020 and the corresponding period in 2019. Total diagnostic interval (TDI), patient interval (PI), system interval (SI) and disease severity across different time periods were compared.Results: For CCs and T1DM, the route to diagnosis and severity of illness at presentation were unchanged across all time periods. Diagnostic intervals for CCs during lockdown were comparable to that in 2019 (TDI 4.6, PI 1.1 and SI 2.1 weeks), except for an increased PI in January–March 2020 (median 2.7 weeks). Diagnostic intervals for T1DM during lockdown were similar to that in 2019 (TDI 16 vs 15 and PI 14 vs 14 days), except for an increased PI in January–March 2020 (median 21 days).Conclusions: There is no evidence of diagnostic delay or increased illness severity for CC or T1DM, during the first phase of the pandemic across the participating centres. This provides reassuring data for children and families with these life-changing conditions

    Decision and function problems based on boson sampling

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    Boson sampling is a mathematical problem that is strongly believed to be intractable for classical computers, whereas passive linear interferometers can produce samples efficiently. So far, the problem remains a computational curiosity, and the possible usefulness of boson-sampling devices is mainly limited to the proof of quantum supremacy. The purpose of this work is to investigate whether boson sampling can be used as a resource of decision and function problems that are computationally hard, and may thus have cryptographic applications. After the definition of a rather general theoretical framework for the design of such problems, we discuss their solution by means of a brute-force numerical approach, as well as by means of non-boson samplers. Moreover, we estimate the sample sizes required for their solution by passive linear interferometers, and it is shown that they are independent of the size of the Hilbert space.Comment: Close to the version published in PR

    Generalized Hermite-Gauss decomposition of the two-photon state produced by spontaneous parametric down-conversion

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    We provide a general decomposition of the two-photon state produced by spontaneous parametric down-conversion in Hermite-Gaussian modes, in the case that the pump beam is described by a Hermite-Gaussian beam of any order. We show that the spatial correlations depend explicitly on the order of the pump beam, as well as other experimental parameters. We use the decomposition to demonstrate a few interesting cases. Our results are applicable to the engineering of two-photon spatial entanglement, in particular for non-Gaussian states.Comment: 14 page draft, 5 figure
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