6,737 research outputs found

    Modeling Covariate Effects in Group Independent Component Analysis with Applications to Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Independent component analysis (ICA) is a powerful computational tool for separating independent source signals from their linear mixtures. ICA has been widely applied in neuroimaging studies to identify and characterize underlying brain functional networks. An important goal in such studies is to assess the effects of subjects' clinical and demographic covariates on the spatial distributions of the functional networks. Currently, covariate effects are not incorporated in existing group ICA decomposition methods. Hence, they can only be evaluated through ad-hoc approaches which may not be accurate in many cases. In this paper, we propose a hierarchical covariate ICA model that provides a formal statistical framework for estimating and testing covariate effects in ICA decomposition. A maximum likelihood method is proposed for estimating the covariate ICA model. We develop two expectation-maximization (EM) algorithms to obtain maximum likelihood estimates. The first is an exact EM algorithm, which has analytically tractable E-step and M-step. Additionally, we propose a subspace-based approximate EM, which can significantly reduce computational time while still retain high model-fitting accuracy. Furthermore, to test covariate effects on the functional networks, we develop a voxel-wise approximate inference procedure which eliminates the needs of computationally expensive covariance estimation. The performance of the proposed methods is evaluated via simulation studies. The application is illustrated through an fMRI study of Zen meditation.Comment: 36 pages, 5 figure

    Fermion Pairing across a Dipolar Interaction Induced Resonance

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    It is known from the solution of the two-body problem that an anisotropic dipolar interaction can give rise to s-wave scattering resonances, which are named as dipolar interaction induced resonaces (DIIR). In this letter, we study zero-temperature many-body physics of a two-component Fermi gas across a DIIR. In the low-density regime, it is very striking that the resulting pairing order parameter is a nearly isotropic singlet pairing and the physics can be well described by an s-wave resonant interaction potential with finite range corrections, despite of the anisotropic nature of dipolar interaction. The pairing energy is as strong as a unitary Fermi gas nearby a magnetic Feshbach resonance. In the high density regime, the anisotropic effect plays an important role. We find phase transitions from singlet pairing to a state with mixed singlet and triplet pairing, and then from mixed pairing to pure triplet pairing. The state with mixed pairing spontaneously breaks the time-reversal symmetry.Comment: 4.5 pages, 4 figures, figures updated, minor changes in tex

    s-Wave Scattering Resonances Induced by Dipolar Interactions of Polar Molecules

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    We show that s-wave scattering resonances induced by dipolar interactions in a polar molecular gas have a universal large and positive effective range, which is very different from Feshbach resonances realized in cold atoms before, where the effective range is either negligible or negative. Such a difference has important consequence in many-body physics. At high temperature regime, a positive effective range gives rise to stronger repulsive interaction energy for positive scattering length, and weaker attractive interaction energy for negative scattering length. While at low-temperatures, we study polaron problem formed by single impurity molecule, and we find that the polaron binding energy increases at the BEC side and decreases at the BCS side. All these effects are in opposite to narrow Feshbach resonances where the effective range is negative.Comment: 5 pages, 3 figures, published versio

    RKKY interaction in three-dimensional electron gases with linear spin-orbit coupling

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    We theoretically study the impacts of linear spin-orbit coupling (SOC) on the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida interaction between magnetic impurities in two kinds of three-dimensional noncentrosymmetric systems. It has been found that linear SOCs lead to the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction and the Ising interaction, in addition to the conventional Heisenberg interaction. These interactions possess distinct range functions from three dimensional electron gases and Dirac/Weyl semimetals. In the weak SOC limit, the Heisenberg interaction dominates over the other two interactions in a moderately large region of parameters. Sufficiently strong Rashba SOC makes the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction or the Ising interaction dominate over the Heisenberg interaction in some regions. The change in topology of the Fermi surface leads to some quantitative changes in periods of oscillations of range functions. The anisotropy of Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida interaction in bismuth tellurohalides family BiTeXX (XX = Br, Cl, and I) originates from both the specific form of Rashba SOC and the anisotropic effective mass. Our work provides some insights into understanding observed spin textures and the application of these materials in spintronics.Comment: 11 pages, 4 figures, Final Version in PR