104 research outputs found

    The Off-forward Quark-Quark Correlation Function

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    The properties of the non-forward quark-quark correlation function are examined. We derive constraints on the correlation function from the transformation properties of the fundamental fields of QCD occurring in its definition. We further develop a method to construct an ansatz for this correlator. We present the complete leading order set of generalized parton distributions in terms of the amplitudes of the ansatz. Finally we conclude that the number of independent generalized parton helicity changing distributions is four.Comment: Accepted for publication in Physical Review

    Non-thermal radiation from molecular clouds illuminated by cosmic rays from nearby supernova remnants

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    Molecular clouds are expected to emit non-thermal radiation due to cosmic ray interactions in the dense magnetized gas. Such emission is amplified if a cloud is located close to an accelerator of cosmic rays and if cosmic rays can leave the accelerator and diffusively reach the cloud. We consider the situation in which a molecular cloud is located in the proximity of a supernova remnant which is accelerating cosmic rays and gradually releasing them into the interstellar medium. We calculate the multiwavelength spectrum from radio to gamma rays which emerges from the cloud as the result of cosmic ray interactions. The total energy output is dominated by the gamma ray emission, which can exceed the emission from other bands by an order of magnitude or more. This suggests that some of the unidentified TeV sources detected so far, with no obvious or very weak counterpart in other wavelengths, might be associated with clouds illuminated by cosmic rays coming from a nearby source.Comment: 4 pages, 3 figures, proceedings of the "4th Heidelberg International Symposium on High Energy Gamma-Ray Astronomy" July 7-11, 2008, Heidelberg, German

    Creating a high-resolution picture of Cygnus with the Cherenkov Telescope Array

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    The Cygnus region hosts one of the most remarkable star-forming regions in the Milky Way. Indeed, the total mass in molecular gas of the Cygnus X complex exceeds 10 times the total mass of all other nearby star-forming regions. Surveys at all wavelengths, from radio to gamma-rays, reveal that Cygnus contains such a wealth and variety of sources---supernova remnants (SNRs), pulsars, pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe), H II regions, Wolf-Rayet binaries, OB associations, microquasars, dense molecular clouds and superbubbles---as to practically be a galaxy in microcosm. The gamma-ray observations along reveal a wealth of intriguing sources at energies between 1 GeV and tens of TeV. However, a complete understanding of the physical phenomena producing this gamma-ray emission first requires us to disentangle overlapping sources and reconcile discordant pictures at different energies. This task is made more challenging by the limited angular resolution of instruments such as the Fermi Large Area Telescope, ARGO-YBJ, and HAWC and the limited sensitivity and field of view of current imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs). The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), with its improved angular resolution, large field of view, and order of magnitude gain in sensitivity over current IACTs, has the potential to finally create a coherent and well-resolved picture of the Cygnus region between a few tens of GeV and a hundred TeV. We describe a proposed strategy to study the Cygnus region using CTA data, which combines a survey of the whole region at 65<l<8565^{\circ} < l < 85^{\circ} and 3.5<b<3.5-3.5^{\circ} < b < 3.5^{\circ} with deeper observations of two sub-regions that host rich groups of known gamma-ray sources.Comment: In Proceedings of the 34th International Cosmic Ray Conference (ICRC2015), The Hague, The Netherlands. All CTA contributions at arXiv:1508.0589

    Probing the Cosmic Ray density in the inner Galaxy

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    The galactic diffuse γ\gamma-ray emission, as seen by Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT), shows a sharp peak in the region around 4 kpc from the Galactic center, which can be interpreted either as due to an enhanced density of cosmic-ray accelerators or to a modification of the particle diffusion in that region. Observations of γ\gamma-rays originating in molecular clouds are a unique tool to infer the cosmic-ray density point by point, in distant regions of the Galaxy. We report here the analysis of 11 yr Fermi-LAT data, obtained in the direction of nine molecular clouds located in the 1.5--4.5 kpc region. The cosmic-ray density measured at the locations of these clouds is compatible with the locally measured one. We demonstrate that the cosmic-ray density gradient inferred from the diffuse gamma-ray emission is the result of the presence of cosmic-ray accelerators rather than a global change of the sea of Galactic cosmic rays due to their propagation

    On the gamma-ray emission of W44 and its surroundings

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    We present the analysis of 9.7 years Fermi-LAT data of the middle-aged supernova remnant W44 and the massive molecular gas complex that surrounds it. We derived a high-quality spectral energy distribution of gamma-radiation of the shell over three decades. The very hard spectrum below 1 GeV supports the earlier claims regarding the hadronic origin of radiation. We also confirm the presence of two extended γ\gamma-ray structures located at two opposite edges of the remnant along its major axis. Based on the high-resolution gas maps, we demonstrate that the gamma-ray structures are caused by the enhanced cosmic-ray density rather than the gradient of the gas distribution. We argue that the revealed cosmic-ray "clouds" suggest an anisotropic character of the escape of high-energy particles from the shell along the magnetic field of the remnant

    Molecular Clouds as Cosmic Ray Laboratories

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    We will here discuss how the gamma-ray emission from molecular clouds can be used to probe the cosmic ray flux in distant regions of the Galaxy and to constrain the highly unknown cosmic ray diffusion coefficient. In particular we will discuss the GeV to TeV emission from runaway cosmic rays penetrating molecular clouds close to young and old supernova remnants and in molecular clouds illuminated by the background cosmic ray flux.Comment: to appear on Proceedings of 25th Texas Symposium on Relativistic Astrophysic

    Creating a high-resolution picture of Cygnus with the Cherenkov Telescope Array

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    The Cygnus region hosts one of the most remarkable star-forming regions in the Milky Way. Indeed, the total mass in molecular gas of the Cygnus X complex exceeds 10 times the total mass of all other nearby star-forming regions. Surveys at all wavelengths, from radio to gamma-rays, reveal that Cygnus contains such a wealth and variety of sources---supernova remnants (SNRs), pulsars, pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe), H II regions, Wolf-Rayet binaries, OB associations, microquasars, dense molecular clouds and superbubbles---as to practically be a galaxy in microcosm. The gamma-ray observations along reveal a wealth of intriguing sources at energies between 1 GeV and tens of TeV. However, a complete understanding of the physical phenomena producing this gamma-ray emission first requires us to disentangle overlapping sources and reconcile discordant pictures at different energies. This task is made more challenging by the limited angular resolution of instruments such as the Fermi Large Area Telescope, ARGO-YBJ, and HAWC and the limited sensitivity and field of view of current imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs). The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), with its improved angular resolution, large field of view, and order of magnitude gain in sensitivity over current IACTs, has the potential to finally create a coherent and well-resolved picture of the Cygnus region between a few tens of GeV and a hundred TeV. We describe a proposed strategy to study the Cygnus region using CTA data, which combines a survey of the whole region at 65<l<8565^\circ < l < 85^\circ and 3.5<b<3.5-3.5^\circ < b < 3.5^\circ with deeper observations of two sub-regions that host rich groups of known gamma-ray sources
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