21 research outputs found

    Order in which different laboratory tests for identification of bacteria of the <i>Mycobacterium tuberculosis</i> complex in positive culture isolates are performed in national TB reference laboratories of 15 high endemic countries.

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    <p>NRL: national TB reference laboratory, AFB: acid fast bacilli, MTB: <i>Mycobacterium tuberculosis</i>.</p>*<p>NRL indicated the type of tests performed, but not the order in which these tests were performed.</p

    Procurement and logistics of immunochromatographic tests for identification of bacteria of the <i>Mycobacterium tuberculosis</i> complex in positive culture isolates in national TB reference laboratories of 15 high endemic countries.

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    <p>NRL: national TB reference laboratory, ICT: immunochromatographic test, Y: Yes, N: No, DNK: Did not know, n.a.: not applicable, Room: Room temperature, Tauns: Capilia TB assay (Tauns, Japan), SD: TB Ag MPT64 Rapid assay (SD Bio Standard Diagnostic, India/South Korea), BD: BD MGITTM TBc Identification Test (BD Diagnostics, USA).</p>1<p>List of countries eligible for negotiated pricing schemes for immunochromatic speciation tests as shown on the Foundation for Innovative New Diagnostics (FIND) website (<a href="http://www.finddiagnostics.org/about/what_we_do/successes/find-negotiated-prices/bactec-mgit.html" target="_blank">http://www.finddiagnostics.org/about/what_we_do/successes/find-negotiated-prices/bactec-mgit.html</a>).</p>2<p>Also mentioned Genotype MTBDRplus (Hain, Germany) and GeneXpert (Cepheid, USA).</p>3<p>Mentioned AccuProbe (GenProbe, USA).</p

    Diagnostic development pipeline.

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    <p>The status of the pipeline for new diagnostics for tuberculosis in July 2011 and the placement of liquid culture and rapid speciation tests within it. Reproduced from ‘Global tuberculosis control: WHO report 2011’ with permission.</p

    TB associated cytokines after 4 and 6 weeks of infection.

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    <p>IL-17 (<b>A</b>) and IL-6 (<b>B</b>) are significantly increased in the infected mice (open symbols) compared with uninfected mice (black symbols) at 4 weeks after infection. At 6 weeks post infection levels in all infected and non-infected mice were similar and around the detection limit for both cytokines. IFNγ (<b>C</b>), IP-10 (<b>D</b>)and MIG (<b>E</b>) are increased both at 4 and 6 weeks after infection compared to non-infected mice. As MIG levels were higher in all infected mice than in all uninfected mice except 1, at 6 weeks significance was not reached (p = 0.08). Levels of MCP-1 (<b>F</b>) were increased in infected mice at 4 weeks post infection compared to uninfected mice. At both 4 and 6 weeks post infection the range of MCP-1 levels was quite wide between both infected and uninfected mice and levels at 6 weeks were very similar between infected and uninfected mice. * p<0.05, ** p<0.01, *** p<0.001</p

    Schematic representation of the expected release of TB antigens and consequential host antibody response upon initiation of treatment.

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    <p>We propose that measurement of these increased levels can be useful for diagnosing TB in a treat-to-test strategy.</p

    Changes in cytokine levels during TB treatment.

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    <p>IFNγ, IP-10, MIG and MCP-1 levels were measured in infected (left hand panels, A, C, E, G) and non-infected (right hand panels, B, D, F, H) mice before (black squares) and after 3, 7, and 21 days of treatment with RIF+INH (open circles) or placebo (black circles). In the infected groups within 7–21 days of treatment with RIF+INH levels of all 4 cytokines were lower compared to placebo treated mice. In the non-infected mice no differences in levels were seen between different treatments or time points. * p<0.05, ** p<0.01, *** p<0.001</p

    Results of hybridiations of, 31 Middlebrook cultures, 13 MGIT cultures, and 4 controls, to the 9 bead array.

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    <p>Fluorescence intensity in arbitrary units is indicated on the left hand side as determined by the MAGPIX machine, this data is visualized in the form of a “line probe assay” (Excel 2010, Microsoft, Seattle, USA) on the right hand side where the % of the total signal in each assay resulting from each specific bead is indicated as a grey scale (where <10% of total signal from a bead species is white, and >30% of total signal from a bead species is black).</p
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