238 research outputs found

    Electricity Generation Location and Benefits to Human Health: What health benefits can be attributed to RGGI in New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania?

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    This paper estimates the benefits, primarily from human health gains, from the longest running U.S. CO2 control program. Further, it examines the patterns of electric generation to evaluate changes at regional and state levels, to better understand the potential of CO2 leakage, which is CO2 being emitted from generation that has moved from a regulated to a non-regulated state, and thus weakening the effects of the regulation. This examination is achieved using a unique dataset of observed generation levels at fossil fuel plants from the year 2000 to 2013, in New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania. It is estimated that the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI) has reduced CO2 emissions in New York State and New Jersey by approximately 4.9 million short tons yearly on average, and has produced approximately 130millionworthofancillarybenefitsfromreducedSO2,NOX,PM2.5,andPM10,emissionsyearly,whileNewJerseyparticipated.JustinNewYork,whichhasparticipatedeveryyearsincetheprograminceptionin2009,RGGIhasproducedapproximately3.5millionshorttonsandover130 million worth of ancillary benefits from reduced SO2, NOX, PM2.5, and PM10, emissions yearly, while New Jersey participated. Just in New York, which has participated every year since the program inception in 2009, RGGI has produced approximately 3.5 million short tons and over 69 million worth of ancillary benefits yearly on average. Further, the study finds weak evidence that RGGI has altered generation between New York and Pennsylvania during the study period. However, it finds stronger evidence that there may have been leakage from Maryland and Delaware to Pennsylvania. There are indications that RGGI has contributed to significant changes in generation regionally in New Jersey and New York

    An Evaluation of Nutrient Trading Options in Virginia: A Role for Agriculture?

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    Water Quality Trading, offsets, nutrients, agriculture, BMPs, Environmental Economics and Policy,

    Reducing Crop Nutrient Applications: The Yield Reserve Program

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    A proposed Yield Reserve Program designed to compensate farmers for any reduced yields resulting from reduced nitrogen (N) application rates below recommended rates is evaluated. Assuming that farmers currently follow extension recommendations for applying N, Yield Reserve Program participation reduces expected net revenue by 10to10 to 13/ha. The Yield Reserve Program reduces expected net revenue by 17to17 to 20/ha for farmers who apply N to maximize expected net revenue. Farmers costs of participation increase with lower probabilities of inadequate rainfall and higher corn prices and decline with higher N prices. The Yield Reserve Program can significantly reduce N applications to cropland, which may reduce N content of surface waters, but the costs to taxpayers and farmers will depend on how the program is implemented.compliance cost, nitrogen fertilizer, nonpoint source pollution, policy, yield response function, Crop Production/Industries,

    Yield Reserve Program Costs in the Virginia Coastal Plain

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    A proposed Yield Reserve Program designed to compensate farmers for any reduced yields resulting from nitrogen (N) application rates reduced to below recommended rates is evaluated. Assuming that farmers currently follow Extension recommendations for applying N, Yield Reserve Program participation reduces expected net revenue by 10to10 to 13/ha. The Yield Reserve Program reduces expected net revenue by 17to17 to 20/ha for farmers who apply N to maximize expected net revenue. Farmers’ costs of participation increase with lower probabilities of inadequate rainfall and higher corn prices and decline with higher N prices. The Yield Reserve Program can significantly reduce N applications to cropland, which may reduce N content of surface waters, but the costs to taxpayers and farmers will depend on how the program is implemented.compliance cost, nitrogen fertilizer, nonpoint source pollution, policy, yield response function, Agricultural and Food Policy, Crop Production/Industries,

    Integrated clothing based personal communications system

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    Thesis (S.M.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, School of Architecture and Planning, Program in Media Arts and Sciences, 1999.Includes bibliographical references (leaves 46-47).Recent developments in fabric based conductive embroidered input devices has created the opportunity for the next generation of wearable computing. This thesis presents a preliminary attempt to develop a wearable, multi-purpose, extensible, IP device that uses flexible fabric based circuitry for its user interface. It integrates a suite of advanced communications devices into a standard PolarTecTMjacket using an embedded personal computer for its controller. Users wear the MediaJacket similarly to normal clothing, and can use a diverse set of applications that include IP telephony, two-way pager-like email, an MP3 audio player, and a contactless "interface pocket" for handling input data streams from external devices. By embedding advanced electronics into clothing using an RF connection for tetherless internet connectivity, this research aims to reduce the stigma of using technology by creating a more personalized user experience. It is our hope, that as the size and cost of the MediaJacket's components come down, this research will help people better to better integrate technology into their lives.by Christian Todd Metcalfe.S.M

    Physiological and perceptual responses to sprint interval exercise using arm versus leg cycling ergometry

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    Increases in power output and maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) occur in response to sprint interval exercise (SIE), but common use of “all-out” intensities presents a barrier for many adults. Furthermore, lower-body SIE is not feasible for all adults. We compared physiological and perceptual responses to supramaximal, but “non-all-out” SIE between leg and arm cycling exercise. Twenty-four active adults (mean ± SD age: [25 ± 7] y; cycling VO2max: [39 ± 7] mL·kg−1·min−1) performed incremental exercise using leg (LCE) and arm cycle ergometry (ACE) to determine VO2max and maximal work capacity (Wmax). Subsequently, they performed four 20 s (s) bouts of SIE at 130 % Wmax on the LCE or ACE at cadence = 120–130 rev/min, with 2 min (min) recovery between intervals. Gas exchange data, heart rate (HR), blood lactate concentration (BLa), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), and affective valence were acquired. Data showed significantly lower (p  0.42), and lowest affective valence recorded (2.0 ± 1.8) was considered “good to fairly good”. Data show that non “all-out” ACE elicits lower absolute but higher relative HR and VO2 compared to LCE. Less aversive perceptual responses could make this non-all-out modality feasible for inactive adults

    Occupational injury history and universal precautions awareness: a survey in Kabul hospital staff

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Health staff in Afghanistan may be at high risk of needle stick injury and occupational infection with blood borne pathogens, but we have not found any published or unpublished data.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>Our aim was to measure the percentage of healthcare staff reporting sharps injuries in the preceding 12 months, and to explore what they knew about universal precautions. In five randomly selected government hospitals in Kabul a total of 950 staff participated in the study. Data were analyzed with Epi Info 3.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Seventy three percent of staff (72.6%, 491/676) reported sharps injury in the preceding 12 months, with remarkably similar levels between hospitals and staff cadres in the 676 (71.1%) people responding. Most at risk were gynaecologist/obstetricians (96.1%) followed by surgeons (91.1%), nurses (80.2%), dentists (75.4%), midwives (62.0%), technicians (50.0%), and internist/paediatricians (47.5%). Of the injuries reported, the commonest were from hollow-bore needles (46.3%, n = 361/780), usually during recapping. Almost a quarter (27.9%) of respondents had not been vaccinated against hepatitis B. Basic knowledge about universal precautions were found insufficient across all hospitals and cadres.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>Occupational health policies for universal precautions need to be implemented in Afghani hospitals. Staff vaccination against hepatitis B is recommended.</p

    Affecting Effects on Affect: The Impact of Protocol Permutations on Affective Responses to Sprint Interval Exercise; A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Pooled Individual Participant Data

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    Responses to sprint interval exercise (SIE) are hypothesized to be perceived as unpleasant, but SIE protocols are diverse, and moderating effects of various SIE protocol parameters on affective responses are unknown. We performed a systematic search to identify studies (up to 01/05/2021) measuring affective valence using the Feeling Scale during acute SIE in healthy adults. Thirteen studies involving 18 unique trials and 316 unique participant (142 women and 174 men) affective responses to SIE were eligible for inclusion. We received individual participant data for all participants from all studies. All available end-of-sprint affect scores from each trial were combined in a linear mixed model with sprint duration, mode, intensity, recovery duration, familiarization and baseline affect included as covariates. Affective valence decreased significantly and proportionally with each additional sprint repetition, but this effect was modified by sprint duration: affect decreased more during 30 s (0.84 units/sprint; 95% CI: 0.74–0.93) and 15–20 s sprints (1.02 units/sprint; 95% CI: 0.93–1.10) compared with 5–6 s sprints (0.20 units/sprint; 95% CI: 0.18–0.22) (both p < 0.0001). Although the difference between 15–20 s and 30 s sprints was also significant (p = 0.02), the effect size was trivial (d = −0.12). We observed significant but trivial effects of mode, sprint intensity and pre-trial familiarization, whilst there was no significant effect of recovery duration. We conclude that affective valence declines during SIE, but the magnitude of the decrease for an overall SIE session strongly depends on the number and duration of sprints. This information can be applied by researchers to design SIE protocols that are less likely to be perceived as unpleasant in studies of real-world effectiveness

    Training Genetic Counsellors to Deliver an Innovative Therapeutic Intervention: their views and experience of facilitating multi-family discussion groups

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    Innovations in clinical genetics have increased diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of inherited genetic conditions (IGCs). This has led to an increased number of families seeking genetic testing and / or genetic counselling and increased the clinical load for genetic counsellors (GCs). Keeping pace with biomedical discoveries, interventions are required to support families to understand, communicate and cope with their Inherited Genetic Condition. The Socio-Psychological Research in Genomics (SPRinG) collaborative have developed a new intervention, based on multi-family discussion groups (MFDGs), to support families affected by IGCs and train GCs in its delivery. A potential challenge to implementing the intervention was whether GCs were willing and able to undergo the training to deliver the MFDG. In analysing three multi-perspective interviews with GCs, this paper evaluates the training received. Findings suggests that MFDGs are a potential valuable resource in supporting families to communicate genetic risk information and can enhance family function and emotional well-being. Furthermore, we demonstrate that it is feasible to train GCs in the delivery of the intervention and that it has the potential to be integrated into clinical practice. Its longer term implementation into routine clinical practice however relies on changes in both organisation of clinical genetics services and genetic counsellors' professional development
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