1,324 research outputs found

    Review of Observational Evidence for Dark Matter in the Universe and in upcoming searches for Dark Stars

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    Over the past decade, a consensus picture has emerged in which roughly a quarter of the universe consists of dark matter. The observational evidence for the existence of dark matter is reviewed: rotation curves of galaxies, weak lensing measurements, hot gas in clusters, primordial nucleosynthesis and microwave background experiments. In addition, a new line of research on Dark Stars is presented, which suggests that the first stars to exist in the universe were powered by dark matter heating rather than by fusion: the observational possibilities of discovering dark matter in this way are discussed.Comment: 14 pages, 7 figures, Conference Proceeding for "Dark Matter and Dark Energy" in Lyon, France, July 200

    Chain Inflation in the Landscape: "Bubble Bubble Toil and Trouble"

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    In the model of Chain Inflation, a sequential chain of coupled scalar fields drives inflation. We consider a multidimensional potential with a large number of bowls, or local minima, separated by energy barriers: inflation takes place as the system tunnels from the highest energy bowl to another bowl of lower energy, and so on until it reaches the zero energy ground state. Such a scenario can be motivated by the many vacua in the stringy landscape, and our model can apply to other multidimensional potentials. The ''graceful exit'' problem of Old Inflation is resolved since reheating is easily achieved at each stage. Coupling between the fields is crucial to the scenario. The model is quite generic and succeeds for natural couplings and parameters. Chain inflation succeeds for a wide variety of energy scales -- for potentials ranging from 10MeV scale inflation to 101610^{16} GeV scale inflation.Comment: 31 pages, 3 figures, one reference adde

    Cascade events at IceCube + DeepCore as a definitive constraint on the dark matter interpretation of the PAMELA and Fermi anomalies

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    Dark matter decaying or annihilating into μ^+μ^- or τ^+τ^- has been proposed as an explanation for the e^± anomalies reported by PAMELA and Fermi. Recent analyses show that IceCube, supplemented by DeepCore, will be able to significantly constrain the parameter space of decays to μ^+μ^-, and rule out decays to τ^+τ^- and annihilations to μ^+μ^- in less than five years of running. These analyses rely on measuring tracklike events in IceCube + DeepCore from down-going ν_μ. In this paper we show that by instead measuring cascade events, which are induced by all neutrino flavors, IceCube + DeepCore can rule out decays to μ^+μ^- in only three years of running, and rule out decays to τ^+τ^- and annihilation to μ^+μ^- in only one year of running. These constraints are highly robust to the choice of dark matter halo profile and independent of dark matter-nucleon crosssection

    The Paths of Quintessence

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    The structure of the dark energy equation of state phase plane holds important information on the nature of the physics. We explain the bounds of the freezing and thawing models of scalar field dark energy in terms of the tension between the steepness of the potential vs. the Hubble drag. Additionally, we extend the phase plane structure to modified gravity theories, examine trajectories of models with certain properties, and categorize regions in terms of scalar field hierarchical parameters, showing that dark energy is generically not a slow roll phenomenon.Comment: 12 pages, 7 figures; matches PRD versio

    Protogalactic Extension of the Parker Bound

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    We extend the Parker bound on the galactic flux F\cal F of magnetic monopoles. By requiring that a small initial seed field must survive the collapse of the protogalaxy, before any regenerative dynamo effects become significant, we develop a stronger bound. The survival and continued growth of an initial galactic seed field 109\leq 10^{-9}G demand that F5×1021(m/1017GeV)cm2sec1sr1{\cal F} \leq 5 \times 10^{-21} (m/10^{17} {GeV}) {cm}^{-2} {sec}^{-1} {sr}^{-1}. For a given monopole mass, this bound is four and a half orders of magnitude more stringent than the previous `extended Parker bound', but is more speculative as it depends on assumptions about the behavior of magnetic fields during protogalactic collapse. For monopoles which do not overclose the Universe (Ωm<1\Omega_m <1), the maximum flux allowed is now 8×10198 \times 10^{-19} cm^{-2} s^{-1} sr^{-1}, a factor of 150 lower than the maximum flux allowed by the extended Parker bound.Comment: 9 pages, 1 eps figur

    Exploring the Expansion History of the Universe

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    Exploring the recent expansion history of the universe promises insights into the cosmological model, the nature of dark energy, and potentially clues to high energy physics theories and gravitation. We examine the extent to which precision distance-redshift observations can map out the history, including the acceleration-deceleration transition, and the components and equations of state of the energy density. We consider the ability to distinguish between various dynamical scalar field models for the dark energy, as well as higher dimension and alternate gravity theories. Finally, we present a new, advantageous parametrization for the study of dark energy.Comment: 4 pages, 3 figures, submitted to Phys. Rev. Letter