11,218 research outputs found

    An Evaluation of Popular Copy-Move Forgery Detection Approaches

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    A copy-move forgery is created by copying and pasting content within the same image, and potentially post-processing it. In recent years, the detection of copy-move forgeries has become one of the most actively researched topics in blind image forensics. A considerable number of different algorithms have been proposed focusing on different types of postprocessed copies. In this paper, we aim to answer which copy-move forgery detection algorithms and processing steps (e.g., matching, filtering, outlier detection, affine transformation estimation) perform best in various postprocessing scenarios. The focus of our analysis is to evaluate the performance of previously proposed feature sets. We achieve this by casting existing algorithms in a common pipeline. In this paper, we examined the 15 most prominent feature sets. We analyzed the detection performance on a per-image basis and on a per-pixel basis. We created a challenging real-world copy-move dataset, and a software framework for systematic image manipulation. Experiments show, that the keypoint-based features SIFT and SURF, as well as the block-based DCT, DWT, KPCA, PCA and Zernike features perform very well. These feature sets exhibit the best robustness against various noise sources and downsampling, while reliably identifying the copied regions.Comment: Main paper: 14 pages, supplemental material: 12 pages, main paper appeared in IEEE Transaction on Information Forensics and Securit

    Gamma ray burst distances and the timescape cosmology

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    Gamma ray bursts can potentially be used as distance indicators, providing the possibility of extending the Hubble diagram to redshifts ~7. Here we follow the analysis of Schaefer (2007), with the aim of distinguishing the timescape cosmological model from the \LambdaCDM model by means of the additional leverage provided by GRBs in the range 2 < z < 7. We find that the timescape model fits the GRB sample slightly better than the \LambdaCDM model, but that the systematic uncertainties are still too little understood to distinguish the models.Comment: 7 pages, 7 figures, revised version accepted for publication in MNRA

    1st INCF Workshop on Genetic Animal Models for Brain Diseases

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    The INCF Secretariat organized a workshop to focus on the &#x201c;role of neuroinformatics in the processes of building, evaluating, and using genetic animal models for brain diseases&#x201d; in Stockholm, December 13&#x2013;14, 2009. Eight scientists specialized in the fields of neuroinformatics, database, ontologies, and brain disease participated together with two representatives of the National Institutes of Health and the European Union, as well as three observers of the national INCF nodes of Norway, Poland, and the United Kingdom

    Lukewarm dark matter: Bose condensation of ultralight particles

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    We discuss the thermal evolution and Bose-Einstein condensation of ultra-light dark matter particles at finite, realistic cosmological temperatures. We find that if these particles decouple from regular matter before Standard model particles annihilate, their temperature will be about 0.9 K. This temperature is substantially lower than the temperature of CMB neutrinos and thus Big Bang Nucleosynthesis remains unaffected. In addition the temperature is consistent with WMAP 7-year+BAO+H0 observations without fine-tuning. We focus on particles of mass of m1023m\sim 10^{-23} eV, which have Compton wavelengths of galactic scales. Agglomerations of these particles can form stable halos and naturally prohibit small scale structure. They avoid over-abundance of dwarf galaxies and may be favored by observations of dark matter distributions. We present numerical as well as approximate analytical solutions of the Friedmann-Klein-Gordon equations and study the cosmological evolution of this scalar field dark matter from the early universe to the era of matter domination. Today, the particles in the ground state mimic presureless matter, while the excited state particles are radiation like.Comment: 6 pages, 2 figures, Accepted by ApJ Letters, Includes Referee Input

    On the theory of electric dc-conductivity : linear and non-linear microscopic evolution and macroscopic behaviour

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    We consider the Schrodinger time evolution of charged particles subject to a static substrate potential and to a homogeneous, macroscopic electric field (a magnetic field may also be present). We investigate the microscopic velocities and the resulting macroscopic current. We show that the microscopic velocities are in general non-linear with respect to the electric field. One kind of non-linearity arises from the highly non-linear adiabatic evolution and (or) from an admixture of parts of it in so-called intermediate states, and the other kind from non-quadratic transition rates between adiabatic states. The resulting macroscopic dc-current may or may not be linear in the field. Three cases can be distinguished : (a) The microscopic non-linearities can be neglected. This is assumed to be the case in linear response theory (Kubo formalism, ...). We give arguments which make it plausible that often such an assumption is indeed justified, in particular for the current parallel to the field. (b) The microscopic non-linearitites lead to macroscopic non-linearities. An example is the onset of dissipation by increasing the electric field in the breakdown of the quantum Hall effect. (c) The macroscopic current is linear although the microscopic non-linearities constitute an essential part of it and cannot be neglected. We show that the Hall current of a quantized Hall plateau belongs to this case. This illustrates that macroscopic linearity does not necessarily result from microscopic linearity. In the second and third cases linear response theory is inadequate. We elucidate also some other problems related to linear response theory.Comment: 24 pages, 6 figures, some typing errors have been corrected. Remark : in eq. (1) of the printed article an obvious typing error remain

    Testing Gravity Against Early Time Integrated Sachs-Wolfe Effect

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    A generic prediction of general relativity is that the cosmological linear density growth factor DD is scale independent. But in general, modified gravities do not preserve this signature. A scale dependent DD can cause time variation in gravitational potential at high redshifts and provides a new cosmological test of gravity, through early time integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect-large scale structure (LSS) cross correlation. We demonstrate the power of this test for a class of f(R)f(R) gravity, with the form f(R)=λ1H02exp(R/λ2H02)f(R)=-\lambda_1 H_0^2\exp(-R/\lambda_2H_0^2). Such f(R)f(R) gravity, even with degenerate expansion history to Λ\LambdaCDM, can produce detectable ISW effect at z\ga 3 and l\ga 20. Null-detection of such effect would constrain λ2\lambda_2 to be λ2>1000\lambda_2>1000 at >95>95% confidence level. On the other hand, robust detection of ISW-LSS cross correlation at high zz will severely challenge general relativity.Comment: 5 pages, 2 figures. Accepted to PRD. v2: Revised to address to more general audience. v3: added discussion

    Constraining the Dark Energy Equation of State with Cosmic Voids

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    Our universe is observed to be accelerating due to the dominant dark energy with negative pressure. The dark energy equation of state (w) holds a key to understanding the ultimate fate of the universe. The cosmic voids behave like bubbles in the universe so that their shapes must be quite sensitive to the background cosmology. Assuming a flat universe and using the priors on the matter density parameter (Omega_m) and the dimensionless Hubble parameter (h), we demonstrate analytically that the ellipticity evolution of cosmic voids may be a sensitive probe of the dark energy equation of state. We also discuss the parameter degeneracy between w and Omega_m.Comment: ApJL in press, growth factor corrected, parameter degeneracy calculate
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