128 research outputs found

    Modeling Cognitive Parsimony with a Demand Selection Task

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    The law of less work (Hull, 1943) is our natural tendency given two alternatives with equal incentives to pick the less demanding one. This notion also appears in the field of judgment and decision making (Gigerenzer & Goldstein, 1996; Tversky & Kahneman, 1974), it is referred to as internal cost of effort. Cognitive parsimony is our tendency to favour low-effort strategies that help us to decide faster and simple strategies to approach a complex problem. An experimental paradigm for this phenomenon has been developed by Kool, McGuire, Rosen, & Botvinick (2010) and referred to as the demand selection task. In this poster, we present a model of this task developed in the ACT-R architecture (Anderson, 2007), which offers an hypothesis as to which cognitive mechanisms might participate in this phenomenon

    Emotion in the Common Model of Cognition

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    Emotions play an important role in human cognition and therefore need to be present in the Common Model of Cognition. In this paper, the emotion working group focuses on functional aspects of emotions and describes what we believe are the points of interactions with the Common Model of Cognition. The present paper should not be viewed as a consensus of the group but rather as a first attempt to extract common and divergent aspects of different models of emotions and how they relate to the Common Model of Cognition

    IONS-VIP: A Cognitive Model for Navigating the Web Via Screen Readers

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    This paper presents a cognitive perspective on the problem of using the Internet via screen readers. An empirical study shows similarities and dissimilarities between using the Internet via screen readers and via the standard graphical screen. In particular, spatial cognition is an important determinant of web task performance even in the absence of any visual cues. Backtracking behavior has a higher cost and impacts performance in a more negative way when using the Internet via screen readers as compared to the standard use. Selective reading can be used as an addition to the existing functionality of screen readers but more research is needed to prove the utility of such support mechanism. Computational cognitive modeling can be used in conceiving, testing and implementing cognitively informed support functionality in screen readers

    Neural Substrates of Inhibitory Control: A Review and Critique

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    Inhibitory control is difficult to study in behavioral experiments because of its nature; a successful inhibition act does not manifest overtly, thus cannot be directly observed and measured (Kana, Keller, Minshew & Just, 2007). Some influential theorists have called the very existence of cognitive inhibition into question (MacLeod, 2007a). This is a case where brain-imaging research holds the promise to be able to shed light into the covert nature of inhibition, with potentially immeasurable impact on understanding and ameliorating conditions such as ADHD, addiction, and frontal lobe injuries. A critical review of the literature shows that inhibitory control is subserved by a network of brain regions including as key components the inferior frontal cortex, the pre-supplementary motor area, and the sub-thalamic nucleus. It is argued that inhibitory control makes use of basic cognitive processes such as internalized speech. A common inhibitory mechanism for motor, speech and thought acts is proposed. Practical applications of research on inhibitory control are discussed such as brain plasticity exercises and electrical brain stimulation

    How Attentional Blink Facilitates Multitasking

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    Multitasking is a required skill for complex and dynamic activities such as driving a car and piloting an airplane. Previous research in cognitive modeling has suggested that top-down control improves multitasking ability (Taatgen, 2005). An empirical study has been conducted to investigate how a basic neuro-cognitive effect (attentional blink) makes top-down control possible and improves multitasking performance

    How Attentional Blink Facilitates Multitasking

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    Multitasking is a required skill for complex and dynamic activities such as driving a car and piloting an airplane. Previous research in cognitive modeling has suggested that top-down control improves multitasking ability (Taatgen, 2005). An empirical study has been conducted to investigate how a basic neuro-cognitive effect (attentional blink) makes top-down control possible and improves multitasking performance

    Intergroup Prisoner’s Dilemma with Intragroup Power Dynamics

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    Development of a Cognitive Model for Navigating on the Web

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    The objective of this thesis is to build a cognitive model of human performance in Web-assisted tasks. The research is driven by the following questions: What are the most important factors in determining success in Web-assisted tasks? What cognitive mechanisms are involved in these factors? What kind of Web navigation support can be conceived based on the knowledge gained from the previous questions? The approach is based on the simultaneous consideration of theory, method and real-world applicability. Web navigation is grounded in theories of Cognitive Science (Text Comprehension in particular), and Information Science (Human-Computer Interaction in particular). Experimentation, statistical analysis and modeling are conducted. Practical needs of Web engineering are taken into consideration. This research investigates how real Web applications are used. A sequence of repeated studies shows that a combination of two factors is the most important determinant of human performance in Web-assisted tasks: a structure-related factor (spatial ability) and a content-related factor (domain expertise). Spatial cognition is involved in representing the structure of the information space, while domain knowledge is necessary for understanding and selecting relevant content. Factors, such as spatial ability and domain expertise, can only be measured with specialized tests, which cannot be implemented in realistic Web applications. For this reason, Web-logging data is used to calculate metrics of Web navigation behavior. Metrics referring to the structure of user navigation are called syntactic, whereas metrics referring to the visited content are called semantic. It is demonstrated that syntactic (structural) metrics indicate users\u27 navigation styles, for example, if they prefer to revisit pages rather than viewing new pages, or if they return to previously viewed pages using the back button or just by following links. Semantic metrics indicate if users are effective in pursuing their goals independent of their navigation styles. These navigation metrics can be used in building user-models for adaptive Web applications such as recommender systems. A cognitive model of Web navigation (labeled CoLiDeS+) is proposed. Theoretical and empirical arguments are used to motivate the main assumptions of the model which are: (a) users build and update a mental representation of the information space being navigated; and (b) they assess relevance and make decisions to select particular contents based on both prior knowledge they have about those contents, and knowledge they gain from the local context of those particular contents (i.e., what contents they link to). CoLiDeS+, an augmented version of CoLiDeS (Kitajima, Blackmon, & Polson, 2000), uses Latent Semantic Analysis to model assessments of relevance and user navigation history (sequence of selected links) to model contextual information involved in making navigational decisions. This latter feature is the main distinguishing characteristic of CoLiDeS+. The model has been empirically tested for its accuracy in simulating actual user behavior and its utility in generating Web navigation support. It is shown that CoLiDeS+ performs better in modeling user behavior than its previous version (CoLiDeS) and the navigation support generated from its simulations has a positive impact on user behavior and task outcomes. This thesis advances the scientific understanding of human performance in knowledge-intensive tasks and contributes to designing useable and accessible information environments
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