28,559 research outputs found

    Generalised Hamiltonian embedding of the Proca model

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    We convert the second class Proca model into a first class theory by using the generalised prescription of Batalin, Fradkin and Tyutin. We then show how a basic set of gauge invariant fields in the embedded model can be identified with the fundamental fields in the proca model as well as with the observables in the St\"uckelberg model or in the model involving the interaction of an abelian 2-form field with the Maxwell field. The connection of these models with the massive Kalb-Ramond model is also elucidated within a path integral approach.Comment: 11 pages, Latex, No figur

    Quantisation of second class systems in the Batalin-Tyutin formalism

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    We review the Batalin-Tyutin approach of quantising second class systems which consists in enlarging the phase space to convert such systems into first class. The quantisation of first class systems, it may be mentioned, is already well founded. We show how the usual analysis of Batalin-Tyutin may be generalised, particularly if one is dealing with nonabelian theories. In order to gain a deeper insight into the formalism we have considered two specific examples of second class theories-- the massive Maxwell theory (Proca model) and its nonabelian extension. The first class constraints and the involutive Hamiltonian are explicitly constructed. The connection of our Hamiltonian approach with the usual Lagrangian formalism is elucidated. For the Proca model we reveal the importance of a boundary term which plays a significant role in establishing an exact identification of the extra fields in the Batalin-Tyutin approach with the St\"uckelberg scalar. Some comments are also made concerning the corresponding identification in the nonabelian example.Comment: 26 pages, Latex file, e-mail [email protected] SINP-TNP/94-

    An interacting scalar field and the recent cosmic acceleration

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    In this paper it is shown that the Brans - Dicke scalar field itself can serve the purpose of providing an early deceleration and a late time acceleration of the universe without any need of quintessence field if one considers an interaction, i.e, transfer of energy between the dark matter and the Brans - Dicke scalar field.Comment: 10 pages, 2 figure

    A method of estimating the average derivative: the multivariate case

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    The paper uses local linear regression to estimate the ``direct'' Average Derivative \delta = E(D[m(x)]), where m(x) is the regression function. The estimate of \delta is the weighted average of local slope estimates. We prove the asymptotic normality of the estimate under conditions which are different from the conditions used by Heardle-Stoker (H-S) (1989). Using Monte-Carlo simulation experiments we give some small sample results comparing our estimator with the H-S estimator under our conditions for asymptotic normality.
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