14,340 research outputs found

    Trouble in Toyland: The 23rd Annual Toy Safety Survey

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    Details findings on deaths and injuries from and toxic chemicals in toys, with a focus on lead and phthalates. Includes tips for consumers and recommendations for policy makers and the Consumer Product Safety Commission. Lists potentially dangerous toys

    Trouble in Toyland: The 25th Annual Survey of Toy Safety

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    Outlines findings on toys that may pose choking hazards or contain lead, phthalates, or other toxins, developments in federal and international regulations, and recommendations for consumers, policy makers, and the Consumer Product Safety Commission

    Development and validation of methods for the trace determination of phthalates in sludge and vegetables

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    A routine method which is simple, quick and precise has been set up and validated for phthalate analysis in environmental samples (tomato plants and sewage sludges). Six phthalates have been studied simultaneously: dimethylphthalate, diethylphthalate, dibutylphthalate, butylbenzylphthalate, di(ethyl)hexylphthalate and dioctylphthalate. Optimization of sample, solvent extraction uses a Soxtec apparatus and extract purification with an SPE cartridge allows between 90 to 110 % recovery of phthalates. Precise, sensitive and selective identification and quantifying of analytes is by GC-MS in SIM mode. This protocol allows analytes with concentrations as low as 10µg/kg Dry Matter (DM) to be determined from small (1 to 2 g DM) samples. This analytical method has been applied to the phthalate transfer study for agricultural recycling of sludges, where phthalate bioavailability has been studied in aquiculture using two types of experiments. Tomatoes have been grown in containers where the trace organics have been directly introduced as pure substances, and in a second experiment under the same growth conditions, sewage sludge has replaced the pure substances. Transfer of these trace organics has been followed into the various parts of the tomato plant and in general only the DEHP is worthy of note although its percentage transfer remains very low even in an experiment designed to maximize this

    The estrogenic activity of phthalate esters in vitro

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    A large number of phthalate esters were screened for estrogenic activity using a recombinant yeast screen. a selection of these was also tested for mitogenic effect on estrogen-responsive human breast cancer cells. A small number of the commercially available phthalates tested showed extremely weak estrogenic activity. The relative potencies of these descended in the order butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) > dibutyl phthalate (DBP) > diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP) > diethyl phthalate (DEP) > diisiononyl phthalate (DINP). Potencies ranged from approximately 1 x 10(6) to 5 x 10(7) times less than 17beta-estradiol. The phthalates that were estrogenic in the yeast screen were also mitogenic on the human breast cancer cells. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) showed no estrogenic activity in these in vitro assays. A number of metabolites were tested, including mono-butyl phthalate, mono-benzyl phthalate, mono-ethylhexyl phthalate, mon-n-octyl phthalate; all were wound to be inactive. One of the phthalates, ditridecyl phthalate (DTDP), produced inconsistent results; one sample was weakly estrogenic, whereas another, obtained from a different source, was inactive. analysis by gel chromatography-mass spectometry showed that the preparation exhibiting estrogenic activity contained 0.5% of the ortho-isomer of bisphenol A. It is likely that the presence of this antioxidant in the phthalate standard was responsible for the generation of a dose-response curve--which was not observed with an alternative sample that had not been supplemented with o,p'-bisphenol A--in the yeast screen; hence, DTDP is probably not weakly estrogenic. The activities of simple mixtures of BBP, DBP, and 17beta-estradiol were assessed in the yeast screen. No synergism was observed, although the activities of the mixtures were approximately additive. In summary, a small number of phthalates are weakly estrogenic in vitro. No data has yet been published on whether these are also estrogenic in vitro. No data has yet been published on whether these are also estrogenic in vivo; this will require tests using different classes of vertebrates and different routes of exposure

    Trouble in Toyland: The 26th Annual Survey of Toy Safety

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    Presents findings on toys that may pose choking hazards, are excessively loud, or contain lead, phthalates, or other toxins. Outlines federal standards and makes recommendations for consumers, policy makers, and the Consumer Product Safety Commission

    Estimated daily phthalate exposures in a population of mothers of male infants exhibiting reduced anogenital distance.

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    Phthalate diesters have been shown to be developmental and reproductive toxicants in animal studies. A recent epidemiologic study showed certain phthalates to be significantly associated with reduced anogenital distance in human male infants, the first evidence of subtle developmental effects in human male infants exposed prenatally to phthalates. We used two previously published methods to estimate the daily phthalate exposures for the four phthalates whose urinary metabolites were statistically significantly associated with developmental effects in the 214 mother-infant pairs [di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) , diethyl phthalate (DEP) , butylbenzyl phthalate (BBzP) , diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) ] and for another important phthalate [di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) ]. We estimated the median and 95th percentile of daily exposures to DBP to be 0.99 and 2.68 microg/kg/day, respectively ; for DEP, 6.64 and 112.3 microg/kg/day ; for BBzP, 0.50 and 2.47 microg/kg/day ; and for DEHP, 1.32 and 9.32 microg/kg/day. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reference doses for these chemicals are 100 (DBP) , 800 (DEP) , 200 (BBzP) , and 20 (DEHP) microg/kg/day. The median and 95th percentile exposure estimates for the phthalates associated with reduced anogenital distance in the study population are substantially lower than current U.S. EPA reference doses for these chemicals and could be informative to any updates of the hazard assessments and risk assessments for these chemicals
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