The use of appropriate constraints is essential if optimal inputs for system identification are to be of practical use, and deficiencies present in existing energy constraints are highlighted for certain situations. An output amplitude constraint is therefore proposed in order to overcome these deficiencies. New algorithms are then presented for the design of inputs with an input energy constraint, a combined input and state energy constraint, or oan output amplitude constraint. Using these three constraints, the design of D-optimal inputs is demonstrated for a simple first-order system, giving some valuable insight into the characteristics of these constraints, and the case of an output amplitude constraint for a more complex fifth-order system is also considered. Finally, proposals are made for further investigation into constraints for use in the design of system identification test inputs
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