Location of Repository

“Giving something back”: A case study of woodland burial and human experience at Barton Glebe.

By JANE HANNAH RUMBLE

Abstract

This thesis engages with the recent innovation in British funerary rites known as ‘natural’ burial through an interview-based case study of one particular site, Barton Glebe, which offers ‘woodland’ burial. Through ethnographic description and socio-cultural analysis the values, concepts and behaviours aligned with natural burial are approached from the perspective of the bereaved, pre-registered users, site providers and those in the funeral industry. \ud \ud The thesis begins by providing an overview of natural burial in Britain (Chapter 1), in which historical and cultural continuities between contemporary British natural burial provision and prior disposal practices are compared (Chapter 3). Chapter 4 provides a historical account of Barton Glebe’s first ten years of burial provision. Chapter 5 shows how Barton Glebe is not only a physical landscape but also an emotional landscape, in which emotions and memory are socio-spatially articulated through ‘nature’. Chapter 6 identifies the range of values invested in Barton Glebe and argues that the policing of graves and enforcement of rules and regulations by ground staff are reactions to a conflict of values, most often between site management and the bereaved. Whilst not unique to natural burial, this conflict is particularly striking in a burial ground in which little or no memorialisation should take place. Subsequently, Chapter 7 argues that the dead are not necessarily given sovereign status, a feature that distinguishes Barton Glebe from other places of burial. It is the ‘natural’ world that becomes a feature at Barton Glebe and, I argue, can create a therapeutic landscape for the bereaved. Chapter 8 concludes by arguing that the motives to give something back and to return to nature allow those who pre-register to affirm their core values and imagine continuity of identity beyond death (by becoming a part of ‘nature’), whilst the desire to be of use grants personal salvation for some pre-registered users.\u

Topics: natural burial, therapeutic landscapes, woodland, death, human-nature, emotions, gift theory, reciprocity, funerals, contemporary Britain, ethnography
Year: 2010
OAI identifier: oai:etheses.dur.ac.uk:679
Provided by: Durham e-Theses
Download PDF:
Sorry, we are unable to provide the full text but you may find it at the following location(s):
  • http://etheses.dur.ac.uk/679/1... (external link)
  • http://etheses.dur.ac.uk/679/ (external link)
  • Suggested articles

    Preview

    Citations

    1. (2010b). From Cabbages to Cadavers: Natural Burial Down on the Farm. Deathscapes: Spaces for death, dying, mourning and
    2. (2008). [1915]). The Elementary Forms of Religious Life. doi
    3. (1974). [1954]). The Gift: Forms and functions of exchange in archaic societies. doi
    4. (1973). [1970]). The Gift Relationship: From human blood to social policy. doi
    5. (2003). [1983]). The Managed Heart: Commercialization of Human Feeling. doi
    6. (1995). [1991]). Modernity and Self Identity: Self and Society in the Late Modern Age. doi
    7. (2000). [1992]). Prey into Hunter: The politics of religious experience. Cambridge, doi
    8. (2002). [1997]). Emotions. The Dictionary of Anthropology. doi
    9. (2006). [2001]). Emotion. Paperback Oxford English Dictionary.
    10. (2006). A Brave New World of Burials: The business of idiosyncratic bodily disposal in the twenty-first century."
    11. (2005). A Brief History of Death. doi
    12. (2009). A Grave Outcome?" The Archers, BBC Radio 4. Episode first aired 28/10/09
    13. (2010). A Guide to Natural Burial.
    14. (1985). A History of Religious Ideas: From Muhammad to the age of reforms. doi
    15. (2005). A modern, greener way of death takes root: All faiths are becoming interested in woodland burial." Times Online Retrieved 12/03/09, from http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/comment/faith/article570019.ece.
    16. (2002). A Natural Death." Landscape Architecture:
    17. (2007). After the Baby Boomers: How twenty-and thirty-somethings are 324 shaping the future of American religion. doi
    18. (2002). Albion: The origins of the English imagination.
    19. (2009). All Shades of Green in the Green Shade." The Good Funeral Guide Retrieved 22/01/10,
    20. (2005). Alternative Spiritualities. The Encyclopedia of Cremation.
    21. (1981). Amateur Gardening and Popular Recreation in the 19th and 20th Centuries." doi
    22. (1999). An amber light for green wood burial schemes."
    23. (2006). An Argument for Environmentally Friendly, Natural Burial."
    24. (2005). An Ecology of Emotion, Memory, Self and Landscape. Emotional Geographies.
    25. (1997). Anthropological Locations: Boundaries and grounds of a field science. doi
    26. (1981). Anthropologists at Home in North America: Methods and issues in the study of one's own society. Cambridge, doi
    27. (2002). Anthropology and Theology. doi
    28. (2005). Architecture: Britain. The Encyclopedia of Cremation.
    29. (1992). Ashes and Identity",
    30. (2009). Ashes in Orbit: Celestis spaceflights and the invention of postcremationist afterlives." doi
    31. (1999). Association of Social Anthropologists (ASA), doi
    32. (2000). At 'Home' and 'Away': Reconfiguring the field for late twentieth century anthropology. Constructing the Field: Ethnographic fieldwork in the contemporary world. doi
    33. (2005). Atmospheric Emissions from Cremators. Encyclopedia of Cremation.
    34. (2003). Aural Postcards: Sound, memory and the city. The Auditory Culture
    35. (2008). Awaiting the Heavenly Country: The civil war and America's culture of death. doi
    36. (1969). Back to Nature: The Arcadian myth in urban America. doi
    37. (2007). Back to Nature? The cultural, social and environmental implications of natural burial." Retrieved 16/04/10, from http://www.sheffield.ac.uk/content/1/c6/05/63/50/Natural%20Burial%20Resea rch%20Outline.pdf
    38. (1998). Bath's Reputation as a Healing Place. Putting Health into
    39. (2003). Being-in-Christ and Putting Death in its Place: An anthropologist's account of Christian performance in Spanish America and the American South. Baton Rouge, doi
    40. (1999). Bereavement and Commemoration: An archaeology of mortality. doi
    41. (2007). Beyond Sontag as a Reader of Lévi-Strauss: ‘anthropologist as hero’."
    42. (2003). Beyond the Pleasure Principle and Other Writings. doi
    43. (1999). Biocultural Approaches to the Emotions. Cambridge, doi
    44. (2006). Blowing in the wind? Identity, materiality, and the destinations of human ashes." doi
    45. (2005). Book of Remembrance. Encyclopedia of Cremation.
    46. (2007). Boomers Seek 'Green' Death." Retrieved 22/11/09,
    47. (1995). British Crematoria in Public Profile.
    48. (2002). British Subjects: An anthropology of Britain. doi
    49. (1989). Cemeteries for the Living."
    50. (2007). Cemeteries, Churchyards and Burial Grounds. Commission for Architecture and the Built Environment (CABE).
    51. (1998). Changing Families: An ethnographic approach to divorce and separation. doi
    52. (2006). Changing Values and Repositioning Cremation in Society."
    53. (2008). Christian Funerals in a Changing Society: A call to research and reflection." Report for The Churches' Funerals Group.
    54. (2001). Church Approves Woodland Burials." Retrieved 22/01/10,
    55. (2005). Colder Than Here.
    56. (2007). Combining Science with Recreation and Pleasure': Cultural geographies of nineteenth-century arboretums."
    57. (2005). Committed to the Cleansing Flame: The development of cremation in nineteenth-century England. doi
    58. (2003). Confidentiality and Pseudonyms: A fieldwork dilemma from Ghana." doi
    59. (2006). Contemporary American Funerals: Personalizing tradition. Death and Religion in a Changing World.
    60. (1998). Contested Natures. doi
    61. (2006). Continuing Bonds and Reconstructing Meaning: Mitigating complications in bereavement." doi
    62. (2006). Continuing Conversation About Continuing Bonds." doi
    63. (1993). Cremation or Burial? Contemporary choice in city and village. doi
    64. (2005). Cremation Society of Great Britain. The Encyclopedia of Cremation. doi
    65. (1990). Cremation Today and Tomorrow.
    66. (2003). Cremation. The Handbook of Death and Dying: The response to death. doi
    67. (2008). Cultural Intensification: A theory for religion. Religion and the Individual: Belief, Practice
    68. (1962). Culture and Behavior. doi
    69. (2000). Death and Bereavement Across Cultures. doi
    70. (2007). Death and Dying: A sociological introduction doi
    71. (1990). Death and the Future Life in Victorian Literature and Theology. Cambridge, doi
    72. (1960). Death and the Right Hand. doi
    73. (1994). Death in Banaras. Cambridge, doi
    74. (1999). Death in England: An illustrated history. doi
    75. (1993). Death in the New Age."
    76. (1996). Death in the Victorian Family. doi
    77. (2003). Death Liturgy and Ritual: A commentary on liturgical texts. doi
    78. (2007). Death to Life: Towards My Green Burial." Ethics, Place & Environment: A journal of philosophy and geography 10(2): doi
    79. (2007). Death-Scapes in Taipei and Manila: A postmodern necrography."
    80. (1987). Death, Dissection and the Destitute London, Routledge & Kegan Paul. doi
    81. (2001). Death, Memory and Material Culture.
    82. (2002). Death, Ritual and Belief: The rhetoric of funerary rites. doi
    83. (2000). Defining the Place of burial: What makes a cemetery a cemetery?" doi
    84. (1999). Disposal of Cremated Remains."
    85. (1999). Do-It-Yourself Funerals." The Times.
    86. (2000). Ducks out of Water: Nature conservation as boundary maintenance. Natural Enemies: People - wildlife conflicts in anthropological perspective. doi
    87. (2007). Eccentric or Enlightened? Unusual burial and commemoration in England, 1689-1823." doi
    88. (1995). Ecological Politics in an Age of Risk. doi
    89. (2005). Ecology. Encyclopedia of Cremation.
    90. (2004). ells: Body wastes, information, and commodification. Data Made Flesh: Embodying doi
    91. (2000). Embodiment and Experience: The existential ground of culture and self. Cambridge, doi
    92. (2000). Emotion in Archaeology." doi
    93. (2005). Emotional Geographies. doi
    94. (2009). Emotions, Imagination and Consumption: A new research agenda." doi
    95. (2005). Encyclopedia of Cremation.
    96. (1996). Environmental Aesthetics: Ideas, politics and planning. doi
    97. (2009). Ethics and Ethnography." 21st Century Society: doi
    98. (1995). Ethnography in/of the World System: The emergence of multi-sited ethnography." doi
    99. (1983). Ethnography: Principles in Practice. doi
    100. (2007). Evangelical Identity and Contemporary Culture: A congregational study in innovation. Milton Keynes, doi
    101. (2010). Examining Trends in Adolescent Environmental Attitudes, Beliefs, and Behaviors Across Three Decades." doi
    102. (1990). Experiences of Death: An Anthropological Account. doi
    103. (1994). Fantasy, the Bomb, and the Greening of Britain: Romantic Protest, doi
    104. (2006). Far from the Trobriands? Biography as Field. Locating the Field: Space, Place and Context
    105. (1999). Farmer’s Plan for Bean Field Cemetery." Cambridge Evening News.
    106. (1998). Feel the Pain'. Death, Grief and Bereavement Counselling in the North East of England. Department of Anthropology.
    107. (2007). Fielding Emotions: Introduction."
    108. (1993). Fields of Vision: Landscape imagery and national identity in England and the United States. doi
    109. (1987). Fieldwork up the M1: Policy and political aspects. Anthropology at
    110. (2005). Final Days: Japanese Culture and Choice at the End of Life. Honolulu, doi
    111. (2009). Following Footsteps: Using visual methods
    112. (2006). Forms of Disposal. Death and Religion in a Changing World.
    113. (2010). forthcoming). Natural Burial Ground Bergerbos: An alternative place of burial in the Netherlands.
    114. (2005). Forward: The body in the sacred garden. The Secret Cemetery.
    115. (2006). From Dust to Ashes: Cremation and the British way of death. doi
    116. (2005). From Passions to Emotions: The creation of a secular psychological category. Cambridge, doi
    117. (2000). Funerals in Belgium: the hidden complexity of contemporary practices." doi
    118. (2003). Gaia’s Gift: Earth, ourselves and God after Copernicus. doi
    119. (2005). Gardens of Remembrance (UK). Encyclopedia of Cremation.
    120. (2002). Gift or Commodity? The Question of the Gift: Essays across disciplines. doi
    121. (2009). Going Dutch: Individualisation, secularisation and changes in death rites." doi
    122. (2008). Green Baby Boomers, from Cradle to Grave. The Guardian." Retrieved 18/05/09, from http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2008/apr/19/ethicalliving
    123. (2009). Green Burial: The Next Step in Green Living for Baby 316 Boomers."
    124. (2003). Green Burials: Is There a Growing Demand? Middlesex University. MA Resource Management with a Specialism in Arboriculture.
    125. (2008). Green Consumption: Life-politics, risk, and contradictions." doi
    126. (2007). Green Funerals: An application of transpersonal psychology and ecopsychology promoting environmentally friendly body disposition choices.
    127. (2009). Green space, soundscape and urban sustainability: an interdisciplinary, empirical study." doi
    128. (2008). Green values may be taken to the grave." Cambridge News Retrieved 18/07/10, from http://www.cambridgenews.co.uk/cn_news_home/displayarticle.asp?id=36306 7.
    129. (2007). Grief and a Headhunter's Rage: On the cultural force of emotions. The Emotions: A cultural
    130. (2001). Grief, Mourning and Death Ritual. Facing Death. Buckingham,
    131. (2009). Growing Demand for Green Burials." Retrieved 22/01/10, from http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/ethicallivingblog/2009/mar/10/natural -burial-eco-coffins-death-green.
    132. (1985). Habits of the Heart. doi
    133. (2005). Haden, Sir Francis Seymour. The Encyclopedia of Cremation. doi
    134. (2008). How Green is my Funeral?"
    135. (2005). HYPERESTHESIA, or, The Sensual Logic of Late Capitalism. Empire of the Senses: The sensual culture
    136. (2005). In the shadow of the traditional grave." doi
    137. (2007). Informed Consent, Anticipatory Regulation and Ethnographic Practice." doi
    138. (1981). Interviewing Women: A contradiction in terms. Doing Feminist Research.
    139. (2002). Interviews as Ethnography: Disembodied Social Interaction in Britain. British Subjects: An Anthropology of
    140. (1981). Introduction: comparative perspectives on death. Mortality and Immortality: The anthropology and archaeology of death. doi
    141. (1982). Introduction: Death and the regeneration of life. Death and the Regeneration of doi
    142. (2005). Introduction: Geography's 'emotional turn'. Emotional Geographies.
    143. (2002). Introduction: Questions of the gift. The Question of the Gift: Essays across disciplines doi
    144. (2007). Introduction: The continuing maturation of the therapeutic landscape concept. Therapeutic Landscapes.
    145. (2007). Introduction: The cultural study of mood and meaning. The Emotions: A cultural
    146. (1999). Introduction: The Quality of Being There. Being There: Fieldwork in Anthropology. doi
    147. (2002). Introduction: Values of Value." doi
    148. (2003). Introduction. Landscape: Between Place and Space. The Anthropology of Landscape: Perspectives on place doi
    149. (2005). Introduction. The Encyclopedia of Cremation. doi
    150. (1999). Introduction. Therapeutic Landscapes: The dynamic between place and wellness. doi
    151. (2007). Inventing Paganisms: making nature. The Invention of Sacred Tradition. doi
    152. (1996). Landscape and Memory. doi
    153. (2000). Landscapes of Memory: the nineteenth-century garden cemetery." doi
    154. (1991). Landscapes of Power: From Detroit to Disney World. doi
    155. (1996). Last Rites: The work of the modern funeral director. doi
    156. (2009). Late" Capital: Amusement and Contradiction in the Contemporary Funeral Industry." doi
    157. (1999). Learning To Be Friends: Participant Observation amongst English School-Children (The Midlands, England). Being There: Fieldwork in Anthropology.
    158. (1990). Letters to the Editor."
    159. (2002). Levelling the Playing Field? Exploring the merits of the ethics-as-process approach for judging qualitative research proposals." doi
    160. (2007). Liminal Subjectivities and Religious Change: Circumscribing Giddens for the Study of Contemporary American Religion." doi
    161. (2009). Living with the Dead." doi
    162. (2006). Locating the Field: Space, Place and Context in Anthropology. ASA Monographs. doi
    163. (1996). Lourdes: Healing in a place of Pilgrimage." doi
    164. (2008). Material Culture. Religion doi
    165. (1984). Meaning and Salvation in Religious Studies.
    166. (2001). Meaning Reconstruction and the Experience of Loss. doi
    167. (1992). Moore's Introduction to English Canon Law. doi
    168. (2003). More Woodland Burial Sites Planned." Ely Ensign.
    169. (1992). Mortality, Immortality and Other Life Strategies. doi
    170. (2002). Mourning and Meaning." doi
    171. (2007). Moving Corpses: Emotions and subject-object ambiguity. The Emotions: A cultural
    172. (2007). My Life after Death: Connecting the field, the findings and the feelings."
    173. (2004). Natural Burial, British Style." Landscape Architecture(May):
    174. (2010). Natural Burial: The de-materialising of death? The Matter of Death: Space,
    175. (2010). Natural burials increase in popularity as ecoconscious Baby Boomers grow old." Retrieved 22/07/10,
    176. (1994). Natural Death and the Noble Savage." OMEGA: doi
    177. (2000). Natural Death Centre. 1: Spring. Retrieved 18/07/10, from http://www.naturaldeath.org.uk/index.php?page=friends NDC (2010) Newsletter. Natural Death Centre. 2: Autumn Retrieved 22/09/10, from http://www.naturaldeath.org.uk/index.php?page=friends
    178. (2009). Natures Running Wild: A Social-Ecological Perspective on Wilderness." doi
    179. (1998). Negotiating Selves: Reflections on 'Unstructured' Interviewing." doi
    180. (2007). Negotiating Uncertainty and Ambiguity in the Contemporary Cemetery.
    181. (1996). Nickman Eds.
    182. (1999). No Room to Bury the Dead." The Guardian Retrieved 17/07/2010, from http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/1999/may/13/davidward.
    183. (2005). Non-place or Allurement. Encyclopedia of Cremation.
    184. (1995). Non-Places: Introduction to an Anthropology of Supermodernity. doi
    185. (2008). Nothing in Return? Distinctions between Gift and Commodity in Contemporary Societies." doi
    186. (2005). On 'Being' Moved by Nature: Geography, emotion and environmental ethics. Emotional Geographies.
    187. (1992). On Collective Memory. doi
    188. (1974). On Death and the Continuity of Life: A "new" paradigm." doi
    189. (1995). On Practical Nostalgia: Self-prospecting among urban Trobrianders. The Rhetorics of Self-Making. doi
    190. On the Laying Out, Planting, and Managing of Cemeteries; and on the Improvement of Churchyards. doi
    191. (1998). One of Us': Marcel Mauss and 'English' Anthropology. Marcel Mauss: A centenary doi
    192. (2007). Organic Cosmopolitanism: Challenging cultures of the non-native at the Burnley Millennium arboretum."
    193. (2010). Owners pay to be buried with their pets." Retrieved 22/07/10,
    194. (2002). Paradise Preserved: An introduction to the assessment, evaluation, conservation and management of historic cemeteries.
    195. (2010). Personal narrative and the ethics of disclosure: A case study from elite sport." doi
    196. (1962). Phenomenology of Perception. doi
    197. (1976). Place and Placelessness. doi
    198. (1999). Place, Identity and Therapeutic Landscapes: The case of home care workers in a medically underserviced area. Therapeutic Landscapes: The dynamic between place and wellness.
    199. (2004). Place: A short introduction. doi
    200. (2005). Places Sensed, Senses Placed: Toward a Sensuous Epistemology of Environments. Empire of the Sense: The sensual culture
    201. (1971). Placing the Dead : Tombs, ancestral villages, and kinship organization in Madagascar. London, doi
    202. (2005). Placing the Dying Body: Emotional, situational and embodied factors in preferences for place of final care and death in cancer. Emotional Geographies.
    203. (2008). Planting the Grave in Japan: Environmental protection, social changes and memorialization in contemporary Japanese society.
    204. (2005). Pollution Prevention and Control Act
    205. (2007). Post-Mortem Personalization: Pastoral power and the New Zealand funeral director." doi
    206. (2009). Problematics of grounded theory: innovations for developing an increasingly rigorous qualitative method." doi
    207. (2009). Promoting reciprocal relationships - examining the ‘give and take’ in Social Science research." doi
    208. (2006). Protestant Approaches to Death: Overcoming death's sting. Death and Religion in a Changing World.
    209. (2001). Purified By Fire: A History of Cremation in America. Berkeley Los Angeles, doi
    210. (1966). Purity and Danger: An analysis of concepts of pollution and taboo. doi
    211. (2007). Reclaiming the Therapeutic Value of Public Space through Roadside Art and Memorials in Rural Nevada. Therapeutic Landscapes.
    212. (2007). Reconstructing 'Nature' as a Picturesque Theme Park: The colonial case of Ireland." doi
    213. (2002). Redefining the Cemetery Landscape as a Therapeutic Environment in a Multicultural Framework. The Pennsylvania State University College of Arts
    214. (2009). Reflecting on death: The emotionality of the research encounter." doi
    215. (1999). Rehabilitating Middle England: Integrating ecology, aesthetics and ethics. Therapeutic Landscapes: The dynamic between place and wellness.
    216. (2006). Religion Is Not About God: How spiritual traditions nurture our biological nature and what to expect when they fail. doi
    217. (2005). Religious Values and Environmental Concern: Harmony and Detachment." doi
    218. (2008). Repaying and Cherishing the Gift of Life: Gift Exchange and Living-related Kidney Transplantation in the Philippines." doi
    219. (1999). Representations of Death: A social psychological perspective. doi
    220. (1995). Researching Culture: Qualitative Method and Cultural Studies. doi
    221. (2009). Researching sensitive topics: qualitative research as emotion work." doi
    222. (2010). Rest in Peace? Burial on Private Land. Deathscapes: Spaces for death, dying, mourning and
    223. (2007). Restoration or Risk? Exploring the place of the common place. Therapeutic Landscapes.
    224. (1995). Reusing Old Graves: A report on popular British attitudes.
    225. (1997). Sacred Britain: A guide to sacred sites and pilgrim routes of England,
    226. (2004). Sacred Sites, Contested Rites/Rights: Contemporary Pagan engagements with the past." doi
    227. (1994). Sacred Worlds: An introduction to geography and religion. doi
    228. (1992). Secularization: The Orthodox Model. Religion and Modernization: Sociologists and Historians Debate the Secularization Thesis. doi
    229. (2000). Secularization. Death and Bereavement Across Cultures.
    230. (2009). Sir Edward Coke gets it wrong? A brief history of consecration" doi
    231. (2008). So You Want To...Open a Green Burial Site."
    232. (2009). Social Class and Death. Encyclopedia of Death and the Human Experience. doi
    233. (1982). Social Dimensions of Death in four African Hunting and Gathering Societies. Death and the Regeneration of doi
    234. (2005). Social Theory and Religion. Cambridge, doi
    235. (2004). Society and Nature: Changing our environment, changing ourselves. doi
    236. (1994). Society's Body: Emotion and the 'somatization' of social theory. Embodiment and Experience: The existential ground of culture and
    237. (2001). Spaces for the Sacred: Place, memory and identity. London, doi
    238. (2000). Speaking and Listening to Nature: Ethics within ecology."
    239. (2010). Spirituality in Contemporary Funerals. doi
    240. (1998). Stonehenge for the Ancestors: The stones pass on the message "
    241. (2006). Sykes, Rt. Revd Stephen Whitefield. The Church of England Year Book
    242. (1993). Symbolic Exchange and Death. doi
    243. (2003). Symbolic Immortality and Social Theory: The relevance of an underutilized concept. The Handbook of Death and Dying: The presence of death. doi
    244. (2009). Symbolic Immortality. The Encyclopedia of Death and the Human Experience. doi
    245. (2002). The 'Best of British' - with More to Come... British Subjects: An Anthropology of
    246. (1993). The Acceptable Face of Human Grieving? The clergy's role in managing emotional expression during funerals. doi
    247. (2006). The Aesthetics of Decay: Nothingness, nostalgia, and the absence of reason.
    248. (2007). The Allotment Gardens of Ile de France: A tool for social development."
    249. (1963). The American Way of Death. doi
    250. (2007). The Baby Boomers and Green Deathcare." Retrieved 23/11/09, from http://www.funeralwire.com/?q=article/funerals-andenvironment/51.
    251. (2005). The Body and Social Theory. doi
    252. (2008). The Challenge of Green Burial. Death Our Future: Christian theology and funeral practice.
    253. (1956). The Classification of Values: A Method and Illustration." doi
    254. (1974). The Country and the City.
    255. (1978). The Craft of Dying: The Modern Face of Death. doi
    256. (1994). The Culture of Flowers. Cambridge, doi
    257. (2004). The Dead Good Funerals Book. Ulverston, Cumbria, Engineers of the Imagination.
    258. (1999). The Desecularization of the World. A global overview.
    259. (2008). The Dying Game: A curious history of death.
    260. (1996). The Eclipse of Eternity: A Sociology of the Afterlife. doi
    261. (1998). The Emotional Self: A sociocultural exploration. doi
    262. (1999). The Enigma of the Gift. doi
    263. (2007). The Environmental Impacts of Death."
    264. (2008). The Ethical Case against Ethical Regulation in Humanities and Social Science Research." 21st Century Society: doi
    265. (1991). The Ethics of Social Research. doi
    266. (1988). The Evocative Symbolism of Trees. The Iconography of
    267. (2007). The Experiential Economy of Stillness: Places of retreat in contemporary Britain. Therapeutic Landscapes. A.
    268. (2009). The Field Site as a Network: A Strategy for Locating Ethnographic Research." doi
    269. (2009). The Final Ringtone." Retrieved 17/11/09, from http://www.guardian.co.uk/education/2009/mar/24/modern-funerals.
    270. (1967). The Forest of Symbols: Aspects of Ndembu ritual. doi
    271. (1986). The Gift, the Indian Gift and the 'Indian Gift'." doi
    272. (2010). The Good Funeral Guide.
    273. (2009). The Greenest Way to go to the Grave."
    274. (1998). The Grove is our Temple.' Contested Representations of Kaavu in Kerala, South India. The Social Life of Trees: Anthropological perspectives on tree
    275. (2000). The Harvard Study of Values: Mirror for postwar anthropology." doi
    276. (1999). The Healthy Society: 1918-98. Death in England: An illustrated
    277. (2000). The Hermeneutics of Sacred Architecture: Experience, interpretation, comparison. doi
    278. (1967). The Historical Roots of Our Ecological Crisis." doi
    279. (1981). The Hour of Our Death. doi
    280. (2006). The Infirmity Debate: On the viability of the new age spiritualities of life." doi
    281. (2007). The Invention of Sacred Tradition. Cambridge, doi
    282. (2005). The Invention of Tradition. Cambridge, doi
    283. (2009). The legal effect of consecration of land "not belonging to the Church of England" " doi
    284. (1993). The Letter and The Spirit: Spirituality as an academic discipline."
    285. (1976). The Life of the Self: Toward a new psychology. doi
    286. (1994). The Management of Old Cemetery Land.
    287. (2009). The Marketing of Environmentally Friendly Funerals."
    288. (1998). The Maussian Shift: A second foundation for sociology in France? Marcel Mauss: A centenary
    289. (1999). The Meaning of Gardens in an Age of Risk. Ideal Homes? Social change and domestic
    290. (1991). The Meanings of Death. Cambridge, doi
    291. (2003). The Natural Death Handbook. doi
    292. (2004). The Natural Way Burial Movement." CONNECTIONS: Scotland's Voice of Alternative Health magazine Retrieved 19/01/2009, from http://www.naturalwayburial.org.uk/USERIMAGES/If%20you%20could%20 be%20a%20tree%20-%20Jan%2008.PDF.
    293. (2009). The Nature Relatedness Scale: Linking Individuals' Connection with Nature to Environmental Concern and Behavior." doi
    294. (2001). The Navigation of Feeling: A framework for the history of emotions. Cambridge, doi
    295. (2007). The New Spirituality: An introduction to progressive belief in the twenty-first century. doi
    296. (1981). The Past as a Scarce Resource." doi
    297. (1985). The Past is a Foreign Country. Cambridge, doi
    298. (2000). The Perception of the Environment: Essays on livelihood, dwelling and skill. doi
    299. (2010). The Pioneers of Preservation: The development of embalming
    300. (2005). The Place of Emotions in Research: From partitioning emotion and reason to the emotional dynamics of research relationships. Emotional Geographies.
    301. (1997). The Political Iconography of Woodland in Later Georgian England. The Iconography of Landscape: Essays on the symbolic representation, design and use of past environments. doi
    302. (2003). The Postself in Social Context. The Handbook of Death and Dying: The presence of death. doi
    303. (1930). The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. doi
    304. (2002). The Quest for New Rituals in Dying and Mourning: Changes in the We-I Balance." doi
    305. (1997). The Revival of Death. doi
    306. (2009). The Rise of the Green Funeral." Ethical Living.
    307. (1998). The Second Life of Trees: Family forestry in Upland Japan. The Social Life of Trees: Anthropological perspectives on tree
    308. (2005). The Secret Cemetery. doi
    309. (1978). The Sherpas through their Rituals. Cambridge, doi
    310. (1989). The Social Organisation of Death: Medical discourse and social practices in doi
    311. (2008). The Sociology of Death." doi
    312. (1997). The Spell of the Sensuous: Perception and language in a morethan-human world. doi
    313. (1999). The Spiritual Lives of Bereaved Parents. doi
    314. (2005). The Spiritual Revolution: Why religion is giving way to spirituality doi
    315. (2009). The Suburban Front Garden: A Socio-Spatial Analysis." doi
    316. (1999). The theology and liturgy of funerals: a view from the Church in Wales." doi
    317. (2008). The Theology of Death. doi
    318. (2005). The trees for life day in the Netherlands and the ritual reference of pilgrimage 1." doi
    319. (1977). The Tuning of the World. doi
    320. (2001). The Victorian Celebration of Death. doi
    321. (2008). The Victorian Cemetery.
    322. (2010). The War Memorial as Healing Environment: The psychological effect of the Vietnam veterans memorial on Vietnam War combat veterans' posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms." doi
    323. (2005). Therapeutic landscapes: An evolving theme." doi
    324. (1993). Therapeutic Landscapes: Theory and a case study of Epidauros, Greece." Environment and Planning D: doi
    325. (2006). This Green and Pleasant Land: Cultural constructions of Englishness. Landscape
    326. (2005). Three ways to arrange a funeral: Mortuary variation in the modern West." doi
    327. (1974). Topophilia: A study of environmental perception, attitudes and values. Englewood Cliffs, doi
    328. (2000). Toward a Coherent Theory of Environmentally Significant Behaviour." doi
    329. (2001). Toward an Anthropological Theory of Value: The false coin of our own dreams. doi
    330. (2002). Tree Cultures: The Place of Trees and Trees in their Place. doi
    331. (1998). Trees, from Symbols of Life and Regeneration to Political Artefacts. The Social Life of Trees: Anthropological Perspectives on Tree
    332. (2004). Trees. Patterned Ground: Entanglements of nature and doi
    333. (2009). Understanding the Relationship between Christian Orthodoxy and Environmentalism: The Mediating Role of Perceived Environmental Consequences." doi
    334. (1998). Vanloads of Uproarious Humanity: New age travellers and the utopics of the countryside. Cool Places: Geographies of youth cultures.
    335. (1999). Victorian Death and its Decline: 1850-1918. Death in England: An illustrated
    336. (2001). Vigor Mortis: The end of the death taboo. London,
    337. (1998). Welcome to the Experience Economy."
    338. (2010). What Will the Neighbours Say? Reactions to field and garden burial.
    339. (1992). What's Wrong with Ethnography? Methodological Explorations. doi
    340. (2007). Whatever Happened to Social Class? An examination of the neglect of working class cultures in the sociology of death." doi
    341. (2010). When Commerce Meets Care: Emotion management in UK funeral directing." doi
    342. (2010). When Life Crisis meets Environmental Crisis: Imagining Death and Ecological Immortality in Japanese Tree-Burial." Retrieved 09/05/10,
    343. (1999). When We Die.
    344. (2006). Where Did All The Ashes Go? Findings from a qualitative study of the destinations of ashes removed from crematoria."
    345. (2003). Where the Dead Live." Prospect Magazine Retrieved 20/11/07, from http://www.prospectmagazine.co.uk/ArticleView.asp?P_Article11894 Worpole,
    346. (2000). Whose Cemetery?" Mortality: Promoting the interdisciplinary study of death and dying 5(2):
    347. (2009). Why Is Nature Beneficial? The Role of Connectedness to Nature."
    348. (2002). Why the sad face? Secularization and the changing function of funerals in Newfoundland." doi
    349. (1998). Why Trees, Too, Are Good to Think With: Towards an Anthropology of the Meaning of Life. The Social Life of Trees: Anthropological perspectives on tree
    350. (2008). Wildwood: A journey through trees.
    351. (2003). Woodland Burial Grounds: A Case Study."
    352. (2002). Woodland Burial Site Consecrated." Ely Ensign.
    353. (2007). Woodland Burial: Memorial arboretum versus natural native woodland?" doi
    354. (2003). Woodland Burial." doi
    355. (2007). Woodland burials are not only eco-friendly: they're cheaper too." Retrieved 22/01/10, from http://www.guardian.co.uk/money/2007/oct/07/ethicalmoney.ethicalliving.
    356. (1979). Yearning for Yesterday: A sociology of nostalgia. doi

    To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.