Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

Steady-State and Ultrafast Fluorescence Depolarisation in Rigid-Rod Conjugated Polymers

By LOUISE HELEN VAUGHAN

Abstract

Polarised spectroscopic techniques were used to investigate the underlying physics of steady-state and ultrafast fluorescence depolarisation in conjugated polymers. Depolarisation is due to fluorescence anisotropy: the angular difference between the absorption and emission transition dipole moments of a molecule. Polarised spectroscopy results from a polymer with a flexible backbone, poly (9,9-di(ethylhexyl)fluorene) were compared with those from two rigid backbone polymers: methyl-substituted ladder-type poly (para-phenylene) and the newly synthesised naphthylene ladder-type polymer (2,6-NLP). This revealed that there is an intrinsic anisotropy directly associated with the molecular backbone. This work is the first reported on 2,6-NLP.\ud \ud Fluorescence anisotropy was shown to be dependent upon the conjugation length; the transition dipole moments show larger angles for short lengths, tending to a minimum as the length increases. For rigid-rod polymers, this behaviour is replicated at each vibronic position. In the flexible polymer, planarisation of the backbone elongates the excited state over more conjugated bonds, changing the angle between the transition dipole moments, whereas in rigid-rod polymers, such elongation can only be electronic. \ud \ud Linear dichroism results obtained for all the polymers has shown the angle between the absorption transition dipole moment and the molecular backbone is large and that the emission transition dipole moment is aligned with the backbone. “Off-chain” to “on-chain” transition dipole moments arise from transitions from localised to delocalised states suggesting that the excited state in conjugated polymers is delocalised.\ud \ud Time-dependent measurements show that the main fluorescence depolarisation mechanism occurs in under 5 ps for both flexible and rigid polymers. The ultrafast timescale and the similarity of the two systems requires the process to be electronic in origin and not linked to a physical deformation. \ud \ud This work proposes that ultrafast fluorescence depolarisation is a result of the delocalisation of the electronic state as the conjugation length extends over more of the polymer

Topics: Polarisation, conjugated polymer, MeLPPP, 2, 6-NLP, polyfluorene, PF2/6
Year: 2010
OAI identifier: oai:etheses.dur.ac.uk:223
Provided by: Durham e-Theses

Suggested articles

Citations

  1. (2004). A comparison of the optical constants of aligned and unaligned thin polyfluorene films. doi
  2. (1997). A glass-forming conjugated main chain liquid crystal polymer for polarized electroluminescence applications. doi
  3. (2000). A kesson. An ultrafast time-resolved anisotropy of bacteriochlorophyll a in pyridine. doi
  4. (2001). A new and versalie fluorescence standard for quantum yield determination. doi
  5. (1991). A soluble ladder polymer via bridging of functionalized poly(p-phenylene)-precursors. doi
  6. (2001). A study on solid-state drawn fibers of polyethylene by confocal Raman microspectrometry: evaluation of the orientation profiles of amorphous and crystalline phases across the fiber section. doi
  7. (2001). A surface-emitting circular grating polymer laser. doi
  8. (1995). Aggregate fluorescence in conjugated polymers. doi
  9. (2005). An investigation into the excitation migration in polyfluorene solutions via temperature dependent fluorescence anisotropy. doi
  10. (1993). Analysis of a recombinant protein preparation on physical homogeneity and state of aggregation. doi
  11. (1998). and H-aggregates of porphyrinsurfactant complexes: Time resolved fluorescence and other spectroscopic studies. doi
  12. (1996). Applications of time-resolved luminescence anisotropy measurements to the study of polymer dynamics. doi
  13. (1995). Basic Inorganic Chemistry.
  14. (1999). Binding-dependent disorder-order transition in pkiα;: A fluorescence anisotropy study. doi
  15. (1999). Blue polarized electroluminescence from a liquid crystalline polyfluorene. doi
  16. Chain morphologies in semicrystalline polyfluorene: Evidence from Raman scattering. doi
  17. (2006). Characterization of nanometric carbon materials by time-resolved fluorescence polarization anisotropy. doi
  18. (1998). Charge carrier mobility in a ladder-type conjugated polymer. doi
  19. (1998). Charge separation in localized and delocalized electronic states in polymeric semiconductors.
  20. (1979). Chemical Bonding.
  21. (1998). Chemistry and Chemical Reactivity. doi
  22. (1997). Circular Dichroism and Linear Dichroism. Oxford Chemistry Masters. doi
  23. (2009). Coherent intrachain energy migration in a conjugated polymer at room temperature. doi
  24. (2000). Collapse of conjugated polymers with chemical defects into ordered, cylindrical conformations.
  25. (1991). Color chemistry: Syntheses, properties and applications of organic dyes and pigments. doi
  26. (1995). Concepts in Physical Chemistry.
  27. (2003). Conformational disorder and energy migration in MEH-PPV with partially broken conjugation. doi
  28. (2009). Conformational disorder and ultrafast exciton relaxation in ppv-family conjugated polymers. doi
  29. (2006). Conformational disorder of conjugated polymers. doi
  30. (2002). Conformational dynamics of photoexcited conjugated molecules. doi
  31. (2002). Conjugated polymer blends: linking film morphology to performance of light emitting diodes and photodiodes. doi
  32. (2007). Conjugated polymer-based light emitting diodes. doi
  33. (2005). Counting chromophores in conjugated polymers. doi
  34. (2007). Crystal structure of friction-transferred poly(2,5-dioctyloxy-1,4-phenylenevinylene). doi
  35. (1995). Determination of orientational order parameters of uniaxial films with a commercial 90 degree-angle fluorescence spectrometer. doi
  36. (1998). Direct determination of the exciton binding energy of conjugated polymers using a scanning tunneling microscope. doi
  37. (2006). Direct observation of protein folding in nanoenvironments using a molecular ruler. Bio Phys Chem, doi
  38. (2007). Direct observation of protein residue solvation dynamics. doi
  39. (2003). Discussions on the methodology of spun film manufacture and subsequent use of the films in optical experiments,
  40. (2001). Dispersive relaxation dynamics of photoexcitations in a polyfluorene film involving energy transfer: Experiment and monte carlo simulations. doi
  41. (2001). DNA binding induces dissociation of the multimeric form of hiv-1 integrase: A time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy study. doi
  42. (1996). Dynamics of optical excitations in a ladder-type pi-conjugated polymer containing aggregate states. doi
  43. (2002). Dynamics of the electric field-assisted charge carrier photogeneration in ladder-type poly(para-phenylene) at a low excitation intensity. doi
  44. (2005). Effect of mesoscale crystalline structure on the field-effect mobility of regioregular poly(3-hexyl thiophene) in thin-film transistors. doi
  45. (2006). Efficient light harvesting in dye-endcapped conjugated polymers probed by single molecule spectroscopy. doi
  46. (2005). Efficient polarized blue electroluminescent device using oriented p-sexiphenyl thin film. doi
  47. (1977). Electrical conductibility in doped polyacetylene. doi
  48. (2008). Electrical properties of polymers.
  49. (1999). Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers. doi
  50. (2009). Electronic and vibrational coherences in resonance energy transfer along meh-ppv chains at room temperature. doi
  51. (2006). Electronic excitation energy migration in partly ordered polymeric films. doi
  52. (2006). Electronic excitation of polyfluorenes: A theoretical study. doi
  53. (1996). Electronic excitation transfer in the LH2 complex of rhodobacter sphaeroides. doi
  54. (1989). Elementary Polarization Spectroscopy. doi
  55. (2005). Elimination of defect-induced color stabilities in polymer light-emitting devices. doi
  56. (2006). Emissive materials, nanomaterials: Polyphenylenetype emissive materials: Poly(para-phenylene)s, polyfluorenes and ladder polymers. doi
  57. (2006). Enhanced feedback and experimental band mapping of organic photonic-crystal lasers. doi
  58. (1991). Enhanced order and electronic delocalization on conjugated polymers orientated by gel processing in polyethylene. doi
  59. (1984). Esr. observations on stretching-induced molecular mobility and partitioning among sites in polyethylene films. doi
  60. Essentials of Molecular Photochemistry.
  61. (2007). Evidence for 21-helicity of poly 9,9-bis(2-ethylhexyl)fluorene-2,7-diyl. doi
  62. (2003). Excimers or emissive on-chain defects. doi
  63. (2004). Excitation energy migration assisted processes in conjugated polymers. doi
  64. Excitation energy migration in highly emissive semiconducting polymers. doi
  65. (2001). Excitation energy migration in pi-conjugated polymers. doi
  66. (2003). Excitation energy migration in uniaxially oriented polymer films. doi
  67. (2006). Excitation energy transfer in a cationic water-soluble conjugated co-polymer studied by time resolved anisotropy and fluorescence dynamics. doi
  68. (2003). Excitation energy transport processes of porphyrin monomer, dimer, cyclic trimer, and hexamer probed by ultrafast fluorescence anisotropy decay. doi
  69. Excited state and charge photogeneration dynamics in conjugated polymers. doi
  70. (2005). Excited state dynamics of a conformationally disordered conjugated polymer: A comparison of solutions and film. doi
  71. (1993). Excited States and Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine: Contributions from Flash Photolysis and Pulse Radiolysis. doi
  72. (2007). Excited-state structure and dynamics of 1,3,5-tris(phenylethynyl)benzene as studied by Raman and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. doi
  73. (2002). Exciton dissociation dynamics in a conjugated polymer containing aggregate states. doi
  74. (2005). Exciton dynamics in ladder-type methylpoly(para-phenylene) doped with phosphorescent dyes. doi
  75. (2005). Exciton migration in a polythiophene: Probing the spatial and energy domain by line- dipole f¨ orster-type energy transfer. doi
  76. (2007). Excitons in disordered polymers. doi
  77. (2006). Excitons in nanoscale systems. doi
  78. (2006). Fast and slow time regimes of fluorescence quenching in conjugated polyfluorene-fluorenone random copolymers: The role of exciton hopping and dexter transfer along the polymer backbone. doi
  79. (2002). Femtosecond fluorescence anisotropy studies of excited-state intramolecular double-proton transfer in [2,2’-bipyridyl]-3,3’-diol in solution. doi
  80. (1997). Femtosecond site-selective probing of energy relaxing excitons in poly(phenylenevinylene): Luminescence dynamic and lifetime spectra. doi
  81. (2000). Film morphology and photophysics of polyfluorene. doi
  82. (2004). Flexible OLED displays using plastic substrates. doi
  83. (2004). Fluorescence anisotropy in studies of solute interactions with covalently modified colloidal silica nanoparticles. doi
  84. (2004). Fluorescence depolarization in the presence of exciation energy migration in poartly ordered polymer films. doi
  85. (2009). Fluorescence vibronic analysis in a ladder-type conjugated polymer. doi
  86. (2000). Fluoresecence anisotropy and rotational diffusion of polyene-like molecules in solution. doi
  87. (1999). H¨ orhold. Charge carrier transport in conjugated polymers. doi
  88. (2006). High luminescence polarized polymer light-emitting diodes fabricated using aligned polyfluorene. doi
  89. (2002). High optical anisotropy in thin films of polyfluorene and its affect on the outcoupling of light in typical polymer light emitting diode structures. doi
  90. (2005). Highly polarized blue luminescence from the oriented poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene)/polyethylene blending films. doi
  91. (1997). Highly polarized luminescence from oriented conjugated polymer/polyethylene blend films. doi
  92. (1999). Hot exciton dissociation in a conjugated polymer. doi
  93. (1999). Identification of single molecules in aqueous solution by time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy. doi
  94. (2005). Influence of molecular weight on the surface morphology of aligned, branched side-chain polyfluorene. doi
  95. (2006). Influence of solvent quality on the self-organization of archetypical hairy rods - branched and linear side chain polyfluorenes: Rodlike chains versus “beta-sheet” in solution. doi
  96. (2006). Influence of star-like iridium complexes in the graphoepitaxy of polyfluorene thin films. doi
  97. (2001). Interchain and intrachain exciton transport in conjugated polymers: ultrafast studies of energy migration in aligned MEH-PPV/mesoporous silica composites. doi
  98. (2007). Intermolecular interaction effects on the ultrafast depolarization of the optical emission from conjugated polymers. doi
  99. (1995). Interpretation of the vibrational spectra of planarized poly-p-phenylene. doi
  100. (2007). Intramolecular exciton relaxation and migration dynamics in poly(3-hexylthiophene). doi
  101. (1996). Introduction to Solid State Physics. doi
  102. (1995). Introduction to the Physics of Electrons in Solids. doi
  103. (2002). Investigations of excitation energy transfer and intramolecular interactions in a nitrogen corded distrylbenzene dendrimer system. doi
  104. (2006). Kinetics and thermodynamics of poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) beta-phase formation in dilute solution. doi
  105. (1999). Ladder-type materials. doi
  106. (1999). Ligand-dependent conformational equilibria of serum albumin revealed by tryptophan fluorescence quenching. doi
  107. (1990). Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers. doi
  108. (2006). Materials science: Polymers show their metal. doi
  109. (2008). Mechanism of forster-type hopping of charge transfer and excitation energy transfer along blocked oligothiophenes by si-atoms. doi
  110. (2007). Meridional orientation in biaxially aligned thin films of hairy-rod polyfluorene. doi
  111. (2000). Methods of X-ray and neutron scattering in polymer science / Ryong-Joon Roe. doi
  112. (2000). Microstructure of gel-processed blends of conjugated polymer and ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene. doi
  113. (2005). Microwave-assisted synthesis of 1,5-and 2,6-linked naphthylene-based ladder polymers. doi
  114. (1991). Modern Molecular Photochemistry. doi
  115. (2003). Molecular dynamics simulation of orientation and crystallization of polyethylene during uniaxial extension. doi
  116. (2002). Molecular Fluorescence: Principles and Applications. doi
  117. (2004). Morphologydependent energy transfer within polyfluorene thin films. doi
  118. (2003). Multi-colour organic light-emitting displays by solution processing. doi
  119. (2006). Multicomponent semiconducting polymer systems with low crystallization-induced percolation threshold. doi
  120. (1995). Near-surface alignment of polymers in rubbed films. doi
  121. (1991). Off-axis orientation of the electronic transition moment for a linear conjugated polyene. doi
  122. (2000). Oligomeric states of the hiv-1 integrase as measured by time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy. doi
  123. (2008). Oligothiophene dendrimers as new building blocks for optical applications. doi
  124. (2008). On the angular dependence of the optical polarization anisotropy in ladder-type polymers. doi
  125. (2003). On the polarization of the green emission of polyfluorenes. doi
  126. (1991). On the transfer of excitation energy in poly(p-phenylenevinylene) as studied by fluorescence depolarization. doi
  127. (2002). On-chain defect emission in conjugated polymers - Comment on Exciton dissociation dynamics in a conjugated polymer containing aggregate states doi
  128. (2000). One- and two-photon excited fluorescence lifetimes and anisotropy decays of green fluorescent proteins. doi
  129. One- and twophoton photostability of 9,9-didecyl-2,7-bis(n,n-diphenylamino)fluorene. doi
  130. (2005). Optical and electroluminescent properties of polyfluorene copolymers and their blends. doi
  131. (2001). Order and mobility of the fluorescent probe 1,6-diphenylhexatriene in a polyester liquid crystal polymer. Molecular Crystals and Liquid Crystals, doi
  132. (1993). Orientational order parameter in polyethylene foils - a polarized Raman-spectroscopic study. doi
  133. (2005). Packing and uniaxial alignment of liquid crystalline oligofluorenes. doi
  134. (1995). Palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions of organoboron compounds. doi
  135. (2009). Personal communications at op 2009 in beijing,
  136. (2004). Personal communications on the topic of polydispersities of materials provided and the possible branching in melppp,
  137. (2000). Phosphorscence and fluorscence charaterization of fluorescein deraviatives immobilized in various polymer matrices. doi
  138. (1995). Photocurrent measurements on aggregates in ladder-type poly(p-phenylene). doi
  139. (1995). Photoluminescence and uv-vis absorption study of poly (para-phenylene)-type ladder-polymers. doi
  140. (2005). Photon-echo studies of collective absorption and dynamic localization of excitation in conjugated polymers and oligomers. doi
  141. (2007). Photophysical properties of a series of poly (ladder-type phenylene)s. doi
  142. (2004). Photophysics of organic emissive semiconductors under hydrostatic pressure. doi
  143. (2001). Photophysics properties of blue-emitting polymers. doi
  144. (1999). Physics for scientists and engineers. doi
  145. (1983). Physics of atoms and molecules. Longman Scientific and Technical,
  146. (2003). Picosecond conformational relaxation of singlet excited polyfluorene in solution. doi
  147. (2006). Polarised optical spectroscopy applied to investigate two poly(phenylene vinylene) (PPV) polymers with different side structures. doi
  148. (2000). Polarized electroluminescence from highly aligned liquid crystalline polymers. doi
  149. (1999). Polarized fluorescence and orientational order parameters of a liquid-crystalline conjugated polymer. doi
  150. (2003). Polarized fluorescence of poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) thin films on polyimide alignment layers. doi
  151. (2008). Polarized front-face fluorescence for muscle tissue structure evaluation. doi
  152. (1990). Polarized light in optics and spectroscopy. doi
  153. (1999). Polarized luminescence from oriented molecular materials. doi
  154. (2000). Polarized photoluminescence and spectral narrowing in an orientated polyfluorene thin film. doi
  155. (1994). Polarized-electroabsorption spectroscopy of a soluble derivative of poly (p-phenylenevinylene) oriented by gel processing on polyethylene: Polarization anisotopy, the off-axis dipole moment and excited state delocalization. doi
  156. (2001). Polyfluorene homopolymers: Conjugated liquid-crystalline polymers for bright blue emission and polarized electroluminescence. doi
  157. (2001). Polyfluorenes: Twenty years of progress. doi
  158. (2003). Population and decay of keto states in conjugated polymers. doi
  159. Pressure dependent radiative quantum yields of the prompt and delayed luminescence of polyfluorene films. doi
  160. (1999). Principles of Fluorescence Spectroscopy. doi
  161. (2007). Private discussions on the topic of branching in melppp,
  162. (1992). Quantum Mechanics. doi
  163. (1970). Raman scattering in crystalline polyethylene. doi
  164. (1983). Raman spectroscopy. In Fundamentals of molecular spectroscopy.
  165. (1990). Raman-spectroscopic determination of the number of high-stress bearing C-C bonds within high-modulus polyethylene fibers during stress-relaxation. doi
  166. (1989). Raman/Infrared Atlas of Organic Compounds. doi
  167. (2006). Real-time monitoring of antibody secretion from hybridomas on a microchip by time-resolved luminescence anisotropy analysis. doi
  168. (2004). Recent development of polyfluorene-based rgb materials for light emitting diodes. doi
  169. (2000). Relaxation of photo-excitations in films of oligo- and poly-(para-phenylene) derivatives. doi
  170. (2007). Revealing the electronphonon coupling in a conjugated polymer by single-molecule spectroscopy. doi
  171. (1999). Rotation of aromatic hydrocarbons in viscous alkanes. doi
  172. (1997). Rotational motions of probes and labels in polyethylacrylate networks studied by time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy. doi
  173. (2001). S1→t1 intersystem crossing in -conjugated organic polymers. doi
  174. (2000). Self-assembly of conjugated polymers at the air/water interface. structure and properties of Langmuir and Langmuir-Blodgett films of amphiphilic regioregular polythiophenes. doi
  175. (2001). Semiconducting and metallic polymers: The fourth generation of polymeric materials (nobel lecture)13. doi
  176. (2002). Semiconducting polyfluorenes - towards reliable structureproperty relationships. doi
  177. (2007). Single-crystal-like structure of poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) thin films evaluated by synchrotron-sourced grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction. doi
  178. (2001). Singlet exciton binding energy in poly(phenylene vinylene). doi
  179. (1999). Site-selective fluorescence spectroscopy of conjugated polymers and oligomers. doi
  180. Solid state effects in the electronic structure of ladder-type poly(pphenylene)s and oligo(p-phenylene)s. doi
  181. (2005). Solid-state optical properties of linear polyconjugated molecules: pi-stack contra herringbone. doi
  182. (1980). Soliton excitations in polyacetylene. doi
  183. (1979). Solitons in polyacetylene. doi
  184. (2009). Solution state hybridization detection using time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy of quantum dot-dna bioconjugates. doi
  185. (1996). Spatially and temporally resolved emission from aggregates in conjugated polymers. doi
  186. (2001). Spectral features of impurity luminescence in uniaxial polymer films and nematic glasses. doi
  187. (2002). Spectral properties of several fluorene derivatives with potential as two-photon fluorescent dyes. doi
  188. (2008). Spectroscopic studies on the effect of temperature on pH-induced folded states of human serum albumin. doi
  189. (2004). Spectroscopic units in conjugated polymers: A quantum chemically founded concept? doi
  190. (1995). Spectroscopy with Polarized Light: Solute Alignment by photoselection, in Liquid Crystals, Polymer and Membranes. doi
  191. (1999). Spontaneous and stimulated emission from a ladder-type conjugated polymer. doi
  192. (2002). Structural and dynamic investigations of unstretched and stretched ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene films. 1-pyrenyl attachment by bombardment with 4.5 mev protons and irradiation with ev range photons. doi
  193. (2002). Structure and dynamics of nondilute polyfluorene solutions. doi
  194. (1993). Study of the distribution of the molecular orientation in thick polyethylene samples by X-Ray diffraction, infra-red dichroism, and Raman spectroscopy. doi
  195. (2003). Study of the energy transfer processes in polyfluorene doped with tetraphenyl porphyrin. doi
  196. (2005). Study of the isotropic and anisotropic fluorescence of two oligothiophenes by femtosecond time-resolved spectroscopy. doi
  197. (2006). Sundstr¨ om. Anomalous energy transfer dynamics due to torsional relaxation in a conjugated polymer. doi
  198. (2001). Sundstr¨ om. Conformational disorder of a substitued polythiophene in solution revealed by excitation transfer. doi
  199. (1998). Sundstr¨ om. Energy transfer in a conjugated polymer with reduced inter-chain coupling. doi
  200. (2005). Sundstr¨ om. Ultrafast depolarization of the fluorescence in a conjugated polymer. doi
  201. (1990). Surface sensitive X-Ray scattering. doi
  202. (1993). Synthesis of fusible and soluble conducting polyfluorene derivatives and their characteristics. doi
  203. (2001). Temperature dependent structural stability of ladder type poly(p-phenylenes). doi
  204. (2001). The complete A-Z Physics handbook. Hodder &
  205. (1939). The energy of charge-transfer states in electron donor-acceptor blends: Insight into the energy losses in organic solar cells. Adv Funct Mater, doi
  206. (1996). The exciton binding energy in luminescent conjugated polymers. doi
  207. The Feynman Lectures on doi
  208. (2005). The influence of the molecular weight on the thermotropic alignment and self-organized structure formation of branched side chain hairy-rod polyfluorene in thin films. doi
  209. (2002). The J-band of organic dyes: lineshape and coherence length. doi
  210. (2001). The origin of the delayed emission in films of a ladder-type poly(para-phenylene). doi
  211. (1992). The oxidized states of a (1,4-phenylene) ladder polymer.
  212. (2004). The path to ubiquitous and low-cost organic electronic appliances on plastic. doi
  213. (1993). The Physics of Liquid Crystals. doi
  214. (2003). The Raman spectra of methyl substituted ladder type poly(p-phenylene). theoretical and experimental investigations. doi
  215. (2005). The role of exciton diffusion in energy transfer between polyfluorene and tetraphenyl porphyrin. doi
  216. (2006). The role of exciton hopping and direct energy transfer in the efficient quenching of conjugated polyelectrolytes. doi
  217. (2003). The role of keto defect sites for the emission properties of polyfluorene-type materials. doi
  218. (1956). The X-Ray diffraction, birefringence, and infrared dichroism of stretched polyethylene: Part II. doi
  219. (1956). The X-Ray diffraction, birefringence, and infrared dichroism of stretched polyethylene. doi
  220. (2001). The xmas beamline at esrf: instrumental developments and highresolution diffraction studies. doi
  221. (1994). Theoretical prediction of the vibrational spectrum of fluorene and planarized poly(p-phenylene). doi
  222. (2007). Thermal behavior and molecular orientation of poly(ethylene 2,6-naphthalate) in thin films. doi
  223. (1999). Thermal stability of a flavoprotein assessed from associative analysis of polarized timeresolved fluorescence spectroscopy. doi
  224. (2006). Thin Film Analysis by X-Ray Scattering: Techniques for Structural Characterization. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, first edition,
  225. (1984). Time Correlated Single Photon Counting, doi
  226. (2006). Time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy measurements in the study of poly(n-isopropyl acrylamide)-based systems. doi
  227. (2003). Time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy measurements made simple. doi
  228. (2007). Time-resolved fluorescence polarization anisotropy and optical imaging of cybesin in cancerous and normal prostate tissues. doi
  229. (2006). Towards general guidelines for aligned, nanoscale assemblies of hairy-rod polyfluorene. doi
  230. (2004). Triplet build in and decay of isolated polyspirobifluorene chains in dilute solution. doi
  231. Triplet state dynamics on isolated conjugated polymer chains. doi
  232. (2001). Two step charge carrier generation in a ladder-type conjugated polymer. doi
  233. (1993). ullen. Fluorescence depolarization in poly(pphenylphenylenevinylene) and related oligomers. doi
  234. (1998). ullen. Photoconduction in thin films of a ladder-type poly-para-phenylene. doi
  235. (2005). Ultrafast dynamics in a nanocage of enzymes: Solvation and fluorescence resonance energy transfer in reverse micelles. doi
  236. (2005). Ultrafast dynamics of charge carrier photogeneration and geminate recombination in conjugated polymer: fullerene solar cells. doi
  237. (2000). Ultrafast electron localization dynamics following photo-induced charge transfer. doi
  238. (2004). Ultrafast exciton dynamics in a branched molecule investigated by time-resolved fluorescence, transient absorption, and three-pulse photon echo peak shift measurements. doi
  239. (2004). Ultrafast intramolecular energy transfer in single conjugated polymer chains probed by polarized single chromophore spectroscopy. doi
  240. (2006). Ultrafast photoinduced deligation and ligation dynamics: Dcm in micelle and micelle-enzyme complex. doi
  241. (2003). Ultrafast polarized fluorescence measurements on tryptophan and a tryptophan-containing peptide. doi
  242. (2008). Ultrafast processes and excited state dynamics in conjugated polymers.
  243. (2003). Ultrafast spectroscopy of polaron pairs in polymer solar cells. doi
  244. (2001). Use of picosecond fluorescence dynamics as an indicator of exciton motion in conjugated polymers: Dependence on chemical structure and temperature. doi
  245. (2007). Vanden Bout. The effect of solvent quality on the chain morphology in solutions of poly(9,9’-dioctylfluorene). doi
  246. (1993). X-ray and birefringence orientation measurements on uniaxially deformed polyethylene film. doi
  247. (2003). X-ray diffraction studies of multiple orientation in poly(9,9-bis(2-ethylhexyl)fluorene-2,7-diyl) thin films. doi
  248. (1949). X-ray diffraction studies of the stretching and relaxing of polyethylene. doi
  249. (2007). X-Ray Scattering of Soft Matter. doi
  250. (1989). X-ray scattering of synthethic polymers.
  251. (2004). X-rays and Light. Scattering Methods Applied to Soft Condensed Matter. doi
  252. (2002). π-conjugated polymers with electronic and optical functionalities: Preparation by organometallic polycondensation, properties, and applications. doi

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.