Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

Water incident related hospital activity across England between 1997/8 and 2003/4: a retrospective descriptive study

By Holly E. Henderson and Richard Wilson

Abstract

Every year in the United Kingdom, 10,000 people will die from accidental injury and the treatment of these injuries will cost the NHS £2 billion and the consequences of injuries received at home cost society a further £25 billion [1]. Non-fatal injuries result in 720,000 people being admitted to hospital a year and more than six million visits to accident and emergency departments each year [2]. Drowning is the second leading cause of unintentional injury mortality globally behind road traffic injuries. It is estimated that a total of 409, 272 people drown each year [3]. This equates to a global incident rate of 7.4 deaths per 100, 000 people worldwide and relates to a further 1.3 million Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) which are lost as a result of premature death or disability [4].\ud \ud 'Death' represents only the tip of the injury "iceberg" [5]. For every life lost from an injury, many more people are admitted to hospital, attend accident and emergency departments or general practitioners, are rescued by search and rescue organisations or resolve the situation themselves. It is estimated that 1.3 million people are injured as a result of near drowning episodes globally and that many more hundreds of thousands of people are affected through incidents and near misses but there are no accurate data [4].\ud \ud The United Kingdom has reported a variable drowning fatality rate, the injury chart book reports a rate of 1.0 – 1.5 per 100,000 [6] and other studies suggest a rate as low as 0.5 per 100, 000 population [7] for accidental drowning and submersion, based on the International Classification of Disease 10 code W65 – 74, however, the problem is even greater and these Global Burden of Disease (GDB) figures are an underestimate of all drowning deaths, since they exclude drownings due to cataclysms (floods), water related transport accidents, assaults and suicide [3]. A recent study in Scotland highlighted this underestimation in drowning fatality data and found that the overall death rate due to drownings in Scotland 3.26 per 100,000 [8]. Even though drowning fatality rates in the United Kingdom vary, little is known about the people who are admitted to hospital after an incident either in or on water. This paper seeks to address this gap in our knowledge through the investigation of the data available on those admitted to NHS hospitals in England

Topics: spo
Year: 2006
OAI identifier: oai:eprints.bournemouth.ac.uk:10371

Suggested articles

Citations

  1. (2001). Association: Injury Prevention London: British Medical Association Board of Science and Education;
  2. (2002). Childhood drowning is a global concern: Prevention needs a multifaceted approach. BMJ doi
  3. Data Collection, Collection and Processing, How does data reach HES [http://www.hesonline.nhs.uk]
  4. (1989). Epidemiology of Accidental Drowning in doi
  5. (1989). Epidemiology of Accidental Drowning in Denmark doi
  6. (2002). Health: Preventing Accidental Injury – Priorities for Action; Report to the Chief Medical Officer from the Accidental Injury Task Force London: Stationary Office;
  7. (1992). Injury Fact doi
  8. (1992). Patterns of Drowning in
  9. (1992). Patterns of Drowning in Australia
  10. (2004). Scottish Water Based Accidents: Development of an accurate database – Report of a research project sponsored by the Scottish Accident Prevention Council Glasgow: Scottish School of Sport Studies,
  11. (2002). The epidemiology of drowning worldwide. World Health Organisation World Congress on Drowning;
  12. The Global Burden of Drowning [http://www.drowning.nl]
  13. (2002). The prevention of childhood injury Background paper prepared for the Accidental Injury Task Force Newcastle:
  14. (2001). UNICEF: A league of child deaths by injury in rich nations Unicef Innocenti Research Centre; doi
  15. World Health Organisation (WHO): Injury: a leading cause of the global burden of disease World Health Organisation,
  16. (2001). World Health Organisation (WHO): The Injury Chart Book Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organisation;
  17. World Health Organisation Drowning Fact Sheet

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.