Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

Infrared Spectroscopy with Multivariate Analysis Potentially Facilitates the Segregation of Different Types of Prostate Cell.

By M. J. German, A. Hammiche, N. Ragavan, M. J. Tobin, Leanne J. Cooper, S. S. Matanhelia, A. C. Hindley, C. M. Nicholson, N. J. Fullwood, H. M. Pollock and F. L. Martin


The prostate gland is conventionally divided into zones or regions. This morphology is of clinical significance as prostate cancer (CaP) occurs mainly in the peripheral zone (PZ). We obtained tissue sets consisting of paraffin-embedded blocks of cancer-free transition zone (TZ) and PZ and adjacent CaP from patients (n = 6) who had undergone radical retropubic prostatectomy; a seventh tissue set of snap-frozen PZ and TZ was obtained from a CaP-free gland removed after radical cystoprostatectomy. Paraffin-embedded tissue slices were sectioned (10-µm thick) and mounted on suitable windows to facilitate infrared (IR) spectra acquisition before being dewaxed and air dried; cryosections were dessicated on BaF2 windows. Spectra were collected employing synchrotron Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy in transmission mode or attenuated total reflection-FTIR (ATR) spectroscopy. Epithelial cell and stromal IR spectra were subjected to principal component analysis to determine whether wavenumber-absorbance relationships expressed as single points in "hyperspace" might on the basis of multivariate distance reveal biophysical differences between cells in situ in different tissue regions. After spectroscopic analysis, plotted clusters and their loadings curves highlighted marked variation in the spectral region containing DNA/RNA bands (1490–1000 cm–1). By interrogating the intrinsic dimensionality of IR spectra in this small cohort sample, we found that TZ epithelial cells appeared to align more closely with those of CaP while exhibiting marked structural differences compared to PZ epithelium. IR spectra of PZ stroma also suggested that these cells are structurally more different to CaP than those located in the TZ. Because the PZ exhibits a higher occurrence of CaP, other factors (e.g., hormone exposure) may modulate the growth kinetics of initiated epithelial cells in this region. The results of this pilot study surprisingly indicate that TZ epithelial cells are more likely to exhibit what may be a susceptibility-to-adenocarcinoma spectral signature. Thus, IR spectroscopy on its own may not be sufficient to identify premalignant prostate epithelial cells most likely to progress to CaP

Year: 2006
OAI identifier:
Provided by: Lancaster E-Prints

Suggested articles


  1. (2004). A decade of vibrational micro-spectroscopy of human cells and tissue doi
  2. (2003). Applications of Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy in studies of benign prostate and prostate cancer. A pilot study. doi
  3. (2004). Back to basics: the principles of principal component analysis. Spectroscopy Europe.
  4. (2001). Cancer burden in the year 2000. The global picture. doi
  5. (2003). Cancer-related changes in prostate DNA as men age and early identification of metastasis in primary prostate tumors. doi
  6. (2003). Characteristics of normal stromal components and their correlation with cancer occurrence in human prostate. doi
  7. (2000). Current status of linkage studies in hereditary prostate cancer. doi
  8. CYP1B1 expression in prostate is higher in the peripheral than in the transition zone. Cancer Lett. doi
  9. (1998). Cytologically normal cells from neoplastic cervical samples display extensive structural abnormalities on IR spectroscopy: implications for tumor biology. doi
  10. (2002). Diagnostic potential of Fourier-transform infrared microspectroscopy and advanced computational methods in colon cancer patients. doi
  11. (2003). Differential expression of the estrogen receptor beta (ERb) in human prostate tissue, premalignant changes, and in primary, metastatic, and recurrent prostatic adenocarcinoma. doi
  12. (2002). Downregulation of CEACAM1 in human prostate cancer: correlation with loss of cell polarity, increased proliferation rate, and Gleason grade 3 to 4 transition. doi
  13. (2005). Estrogenic chemicals in plastic and oral contraceptives disrupt development of the fetal mouse prostate and urethra. doi
  14. (2000). Expression of p-class glutathione S-transferase: two populations of high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia with different relations to carcinoma. doi
  15. (2005). Fixation protocols for subcellular imaging by synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy. doi
  16. (2003). FTIR spectroscopy demonstrates biochemical differences in mammalian cell cultures at different growth stages. doi
  17. (2004). Inflammatory bowel diseases as an intermediate stage between normal and cancer: a FTIR-microspectroscopy approach. doi
  18. (2004). Infrared microscopy of epithelial cancer cells in whole tissues and in tissue culture, using synchrotron radiation. Faraday Discuss. doi
  19. (2002). Infrared microspectroscopic detection of epithelial and stromal growth in the human benign prostatic hyperplasia. doi
  20. (2005). Infrared spectroscopic imaging for histopathologic recognition. doi
  21. (2000). IR spectroscopic characteristics of cell-cycle and cell death probed by synchrotron radiation based Fourier transform IR spectroscopy. doi
  22. Malins,D.C.,N.L.Polissar,andS.J.Gunselman.1997.Infraredspectral models demonstrate that exposure to environmental chemicals leads to new forms of DNA. doi
  23. (2004). Metastatic cancer DNA phenotype identified in normal tissues surrounding metastasizing prostate carcinomas. doi
  24. (2005). Mietype scattering and non-Beer-Lambert absorption behavior of human cells in infrared microspectroscopy. doi
  25. (2005). Monitoring cell cycle distributions in MCF-7 cells using near-field photothermal microspectroscopy. doi
  26. (1996). Mortality Statistics by Cause: England and Wales
  27. (1988). Normal histology of the prostate. doi
  28. (2003). Oestrogens and prostate cancer. doi
  29. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts in prostate cancer. Cancer Res. doi
  30. (2003). Possible common biomarkers from FTIR microspectroscopy of cervical cancer and melanoma. doi
  31. (2004). Promise and challenge: markers of prostate cancer detection, diagnosis and prognosis. doi
  32. (1995). Regional distribution of epidermal growth factor, testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in benign prostate hyperplasia tissue. doi
  33. (2006). Sex steroids have differential effects on growth and gene expression in primary human prostatic epithelial cell cultures derived from the peripheral vs. transition zones. doi
  34. (2001). Similarities of prostate and breast cancer: evolution, diet, and estrogens. doi
  35. (2005). Stromal expression of connective tissue growth factor promotes angiogenesis and prostate cancer tumorigenesis. Cancer Res. doi
  36. (2002). The initiation of breast and prostate cancer. doi
  37. (2004). The multiethnic cohort study: exploring genes, lifestyle and cancer risk. doi
  38. (1988). The prostate gland: morphology and pathobiology. Monograph Urol.
  39. (1997). Tumor progression to the metastatic state involves structural modification in DNA markedly different from those associated with primary tumor formation. doi

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.