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(Table 2) Aragonite, high and low magnesium calcite, major elements, bioclast and planktic foraminifera from ODP Hole 133-817A

By Pierre Cotillon, Bruno Rousselle, Bernard Courtinat and Jean-Pierre Crumière

Abstract

Investigation of the Middle Miocene-Pleistocene succession in cores at ODP Site 817A (Leg 133), drilled on the slope south of the Queensland Plateau, identified the various material fluxes contributing to sedimentation and has determined thereby the paleogeographic events which occurred close to the studied area and influenced these fluxes. To determine proportions of platform origin and of plankton origin of carbonate mud, two reference sediments were collected: (1) back-reef carbonate mud from the Young Reef area (Great Barrier Reef); and (2) Late Miocene chalk from the Loyalty Basin, off New Caledonia. Through their biofacies and mineralogical and geochemical characters, these reference sediments were used to distinguish the proportions of platform and basin components in carbonate muds of 25 core samples from Hole 817A. Two "origin indexes" (i1 and i2) relate the proportion in platform and basin materials. The relative sedimentation rate is inferred from the high-frequency cycles determined by redox intervals in the cores. Bulk carbonate deposited in each core has been calculated in two ways with close results: (1) from calcimetric data available in the Leg 133 preliminary reports (Davies et al., 1991); and (2) from average magnetic susceptibility of cores, a value negatively correlated to the average carbonate content. Vertical changes in sedimentation rates, in carbonate content, in origin indexes and in "linear fluxes" document the evolution of sediment origins from platform carbonates, planktonic carbonates and insoluble material through time. These data are augmented with the variations in organic-matter content through the 817A succession. The observed changes and their interpretation are not modified by compaction, and are compatible with major paleogeographic events including drowning of the Queensland Plateau (Middle Miocene-Early Pliocene) and the renewal of shallow carbonate production, (1) during the Late Pliocene, and (2) from the Early Pleistocene. The birth and growth of the Great Barrier Reef is also recorded from 0.5 Ma by a strengthening of detrital carbonate deposition and possibly by a lack of clay minerals in the 4 upper cores, a response to trapping of terrigenous material behind this barrier. In addition, a maximum of biological silica production is displayed in the Middle Miocene. These changes constrain the time of events and the sequence-stratigraphy framework some components of which are transgression surface, maximum flooding surface and low-stand turbidites. Sedimentation rates and material fluxes show cycles lasting 1.75 Myr. Whatever their origin (climatic and/or eustatic) these cycles affected the planktonic production primarily. The changes also show that major carbonate variations in the deposits are due to a dilution effect by insoluble material (clay, biogenic silica and volcanic glasses) and that plankton productivity, controlling the major fraction of carbonate sedimentation, depends principally on terrigenous supplies, but also on deep-water upwelling. Accuracy of the method is reduced by redeposition, reworking, and probable occurrence of hiatuses

Topics: 133-817A; Aragonite (peak height); Bioclasts; Coral Sea; DEPTH, sediment/rock; DRILL; Drilling/drill rig; Foraminifera, planktic; High magnesium calcite (peak height); Iron; Joides Resolution; Leg133; Low magnesium calcite (peak height); Magnesium; Manganese; Ocean Drilling Program; ODP; ODP sample designation; Sample code/label; Smear slide analysis; Spectrophotometry; Strontium; X-ray diffraction (XRD)
Publisher: PANGAEA
Year: 1994
DOI identifier: 10.1594/PANGAEA.769728
OAI identifier: oai:pangaea.de:doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.769728
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