The winding copper loss can be significantly increased due to skin and proximity eddy current effects. The skin and proximity losses due to fundamental frequency current has been investigated in literature, but the influence of PWM on the skin and proximity losses has not been reported. In this paper, 2-D finite element method is employed to analyze the skin and proximity losses in a permanent magnet brushless AC machine, in which significant proximity loss exists due to high frequency current ripples induced by the PWM, as confirmed by both theoretical calculation and experiment. The analyses should be generally applicable to other machines
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