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The healing touch: spiritual healing in England, c.1870-1955

By Sheryl Root

Abstract

This thesis provides a comprehensive analysis of spiritual healing in England in its various different guises during the late-nineteenth and early- to mid-twentieth centuries. It considers the interplay between the various spiritual healing groups themselves and between their philosophies and practices and orthodox medical theory more generally. The first half examines how spiritual healing was conceptualised by those who practised it - who spiritual healers were, what they believed and how they defined illness and healing. The specific therapeutic techniques used by healers are delineated, and the themes of touch and morality explored in detail. The second half of this thesis then examines how spiritual healing was perceived by the religious and medical establishments, and explores their co-operational discourse. Firstly, the reaction of the orthodox Christian churches to spiritual healing and their fractured and inherently conservative attempts to utilise it as a means of revitalising orthodox Christianity are analysed. The final chapters then chart the chronological relationship between spiritual healing and orthodox medicine during three specific periods, and explore the way in which spiritual healing intersected and impacted upon medical reactions to the new psychology of the twentieth century

Topics: RZ, BT
OAI identifier: oai:wrap.warwick.ac.uk:1196

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  1. (1945). 1 It Harry Edwards, The Science of Spirit Healing
  2. (1907). 1( The case study here was of a woman suffering from mental depression who had previously been incarcerated in Colney Hatch Asylum for a month. James Moore Hickson, Healing by the "Laying on of Hands" (London: privately printed, c.
  3. (1924). 10 'Spiritual Healing in the English Church',
  4. (1908). 10 Quoted from Hickson's monthly journal The Healer of
  5. 10. p. 9. column f. Further discussion of the impact of science on spiritual philosophies of heating can be found in chapter two. 77 'Mental Ilealing'.
  6. (1960). 101 Letter from Stretton Lichfield, chairman of the Churches' Council of Healing, The Times,
  7. (1911). 107 'Report on the Subject of "Spiritual Healing", Submitted by the Council',
  8. (1924). 109 'Spiritual Healing in Australasia', doi
  9. (1924). 11 Anglican encyclical reported in The Times,
  10. 12 Similar medical correspondence about spiritual healing took place in both the Lancet and The Times at varying points during the period 1910-1925.
  11. (1909). 122 'Modem Faith Healing',
  12. (1924). 13 209 The Ministry of Healing,
  13. (1911). 133 'Report on the Subject of "Spiritual Healing", Submitted by the Council', Supplement to the BMJ,
  14. (1923). 135 Quoted by 'Spiritual Healing', doi
  15. (1911). 14 'Modem Faith Healing: Franz Anton Mesmer',
  16. (1982). 14 of this thesis for an overview of the involvement of the Christian churches in spiritual healing. See also Stuart Mews, 'The Revival of Spiritual Healing in the Church of England, 1920-26'
  17. (1924). 140 'Spiritual Healing in the English Church',
  18. (1911). 147 Taken from a letter from the Guild of Health Quarterly Magazine, submitted by the Reverend
  19. (1919). 15 77te Times was reporting on an address on spiritual healing given at the Church Army Headquarters by a Mr Maynard. 7he Times,
  20. (1912). 150 Quoted by 'The Secret of Mesmer',
  21. (1992). 16 An example of the dominance of this type of evangelical narrative even within a secular setting can be seen in the moral furore provoked by the 1894 'massage scandal', described in detail in chapter three of this thesis.
  22. (1924). 16 From a Times editorial on the subject.
  23. (1910). 16 Sir Clifford Allbutt, 'Reflections on Faith Healing', doi
  24. (1998). 17 Bowler notes that scientists such as Julian Huxley who continued to discuss religion were increasingly considered 'an embarrassment' by their peers.
  25. 17 The number of worldwide Christian Science churches, Lea wrote, had increased from a mere twenty-eight in 1892 to an impressive 1,500 by 1915.
  26. (1911). 171 Quoted by 'Report on the Subject of "Spiritual Healing", Submitted by the Council', Supplement to the BMJ,
  27. 1783, quoted
  28. (1911). 184 'Report on the Subject of "Spiritual flealing7, Submitted by the Council', Supplement to the BMJ,
  29. (1910). 20 Quoted from Sir James Paget's Clinical Lectures and Essays
  30. (1932). 20 See the similarities of books such as - among many others - Franz Alexander. TheMedical Value of Psychoanalysis (London: Allen & Unwin,
  31. (1929). 22 'Report of Psycho-Analysis Committee', Supplement to the BAU,
  32. (1912). 225 of this thesis. 8B utlin was an eminent surgeon and prolific surgical and medical writer, and in 19 10 was president of both the BMA and the Royal College of Surgeons. However, he died shortly afterwards in
  33. (1894). 25 General massage is massage all over the body, rather than in a localised area. 26 'Immoral Massage',
  34. (1911). 27 'Report on the Subject of "Spiritual Healing", Submitted by the Council', Supplement to the BMJ,
  35. (1894). 27 'The Scandals of Massage: Report of the Special Commissioners of the BMJ IV', doi
  36. 27 From the Journal of the American Medical Association in October 1899, quoted by
  37. (1908). 28 Quoted by 'Ministries of Healing',
  38. (1894). 29 'The Scandals of Massage: doi
  39. (1920). 29 The Ministry of Healing: Report of the Committee Appointed
  40. (1920). 29 The Ministry of Healing: Report of the Committee Appointed in Accordance with Resolution 63 of the Lambeth Conference,
  41. 30 Sir Clifford Allbutt, 'Reflections on Faith Healing', doi
  42. (1987). 31 For example, from the Sporting Times,
  43. 32 'Mental Healing', doi
  44. (1929). 34 'Report of Psycho-Analysis Committee'. Supplement to the BAIJ,
  45. (1995). 34 Lucy Bland writes of male sexuality in the late nineteenth century as a matter of 'banishing the beast'. Lucy Bland, Banishing the Beast: English Feminism and Sexual Morality 1885-1914 (London: Penguin,
  46. (1937). 35 By this time Hickson was engaged on a world spiritual healing tour, which lasted from 1919 until 1924 and saw him visit India, China, Japan, the Philippines,
  47. (1929). 36 'Report of Psycho-Analysis Committee', Supplement to the BMJ.
  48. (1925). 37 Crookshank's background was as a hospital clinician, but his experiences as a military doctor during the First World War encouraged a lasting interest in psychology and the impact of the psychological on
  49. (1916). 37 Quoted from the Morningside Annual Report,
  50. (1929). 37 Text of an address given by Charles Adams Simpson at the London Society of Apothecaries in
  51. (1898). 40 Letter from 'A District Visitor',
  52. 41 For more information
  53. (1934). 41 From a paper given by Dr David Forsyth at the Royal Society of
  54. (1914). 42 Spiritual Healing: Report of a Clerical and Medical Committee of Inquiry into Spiritual, Faith and Mental Healing doi
  55. 44 'Report on the Subject of "Spiritual Healine', Submitted by the Council', Supplement to the BMJ,
  56. (1968). 44 For more information of the national Federation of Spiritual Healers see Harry Edwards, Thirty Years a Spiritual Healer (Surrey: Spiritual Healer Publishing,
  57. 44 The healer, a Mrs Steward, was subsequently indicted for manslaughter. 'Manslaughter by a Faith Healer',
  58. 46 'Spiritualism Tested, Part Two',
  59. 48 From the report of the Pall Mall Gazette's secret commission, entitled 'The Maiden Tribute of Modem Babylon', issued as a reprint of the articles printed
  60. (1895). 5 'Registration and Pensions for Nurses', doi
  61. (1925). 51 From a paper given by Herbert Hensley Henson at the Durham Diocesan Conference on 14
  62. (2003). 52 For an overview of many of these movements see Stephen Hunt, Altemative Religions: A Sociological Introduction (Aldershot: Ashgate,
  63. (1928). 55 Ryle was a renowned Old Testament biblical scholar and a broad-churchman, favouring a liberal and rational interpretation of church doctrine. See Maurice Henry Fitzgerald, A Memoir of Herbert Edward Ryle (London:
  64. (1911). 57 The Times, doi
  65. (1952). 58 Quoted by Caradog Jones, Spiritual Healing,
  66. (1924). 59 From the Morning Post
  67. (1925). 59 Henson's polemical Notes on Spiritual Healing
  68. (2001). 59 This can be seen as part of a wider temporary religious revival 1945-1958, a period often neglected by traditional religious history. Callum Brown, The Death of Christian Britain: Understanding Secularisation 1800-2000 (London: Routledge,
  69. (1911). 6 'A Spiritualistic Neurosis',
  70. (1994). 6 See chapter three of this thesis for some discussion of the professionalisation of massage. See also Jean Barclay, In Good Hands: The History of the Chartered Society of Physiotherapy 1894-1994 (Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann,
  71. (1924). 61 Letter from Dr Otto May. 71e 771mes,
  72. (1898). 63 'Massage Notes',
  73. (1925). 63 'Spiritual I lealing in
  74. (1925). 64 Quoted by 'Spiritual Healing in Bradford',
  75. (1914). 64 Reported by The Times,
  76. 66 'Police Outrage on a Lady'.
  77. (1909). 67 Quoted from the BAIJ's report on a discussion of the Ilarveian
  78. (1911). 69 Quoted in 'Report on the Subject of "Spiritual Healing", Submitted by the Council',
  79. (1894). 70 CSP archives. 'Immoral Massage', doi
  80. (1989). 70 See in particular Morris Berman, Coming to Our Senses: Body and Spirit
  81. 74 Signed statement by Miss Laura Bridges, dated 14 April 1897; PRO, HO 45/10912/A56145/10, ; Bylaws: London County Council Registration of Massage Houses,
  82. 77 This is how the Spiritualist Federation, founded in 1928, conceived of Jesus. Quoted
  83. (1938). 77ze Place of Spiritual Healing in the Society of Friends: The Substance of Lectures Given at Jordans,
  84. (1982). 7he Church and Healing: Papers Read at the Twentieth Summer Meeting and the Twenty-First Winter Meeting of the Ecclesiastical History Society doi
  85. (1989). 8 Owen dedicates a chapter to 'Women Healers in the Spiritualist World' in her book The Darkened Room: Women, Power and Spiritualism in Late Victorian doi
  86. (1911). 80 'Report on the Subject of "Spiritual Healing", Submitted by the Council', Supplement to the BMJ,
  87. 81 In this Falby is somewhat at odds with Callum Brown's conception of an 'abrupt change' towards secularisation in the 1960s. Falby, 'The Modem Confessional',
  88. 81 The Ministry of Healing, doi
  89. (1994). 83 Doctors had requested similar proof of Mesmer in the eighteenth century, and had wanted to test his claims scientifically. He rejected such requests believing them to be an insult to his
  90. 89 Quoted by 'Mental Healing',
  91. (1999). 9 Osler was a clinical physician prolific medical writer who during his career taught both in England and America, and in 1910 was Regius Professor of Medicine at Oxford University. He was a renowned teacher
  92. (1998). 91 For more information on modernism within the orthodox churches see Bowler, Reconciling Science and Religion, chapters six to nine. See also Peter Bowler, 'Evolution and the Eucharist: Bishop
  93. (1909). 93 'Manslaughter by a Faith Healer',
  94. 93 The Bureau des Constatations Midicales was a medical board established at Lourdes in 1885 in order to verify cures.
  95. (1910). 94 Dr Boissarie's views were summarised by surgeon Sir Henry Morris in ... Suggestion" in the Treatment of Disease',
  96. (1923). 94 Griffith's remarks were reported above, see pp. 276-277 of this thesis. Letter from Gerald Hunnybun, The Times,
  97. (1911). 95 'Report on the Subject of "Spiritual Ilealing", Submitted by the Council',
  98. (1911). 96 Quoted in 'Report on the Subject of "Spiritual Healing", Subn-&ted by the Council',
  99. (1947). 97 From the Supplement to the BMJ, doi
  100. (1911). 97 Quoted in 'Report on the Subject of "Spiritual Healing", Submitted by the Council',
  101. (1956). 99 Reported by The Times, doi
  102. (1943). A Continuation of "The Seekers", Further Talks by "Dr Lascelles ", P edition (London: Daniel Co., 1934, first published 1929); Arthur Keith Desmond, The Gift of Healing: The Story of Lilley the Healer (London:
  103. (1953). A Doctor Heals by Faith (London; Max Parrish,
  104. (1945). A Doctor Heals by Faith,
  105. (1934). a He did note however, that 'until modem times much disease ha[d] been wrongly attributed to demon possession'. Weatherhead, Psychology, Religion and Healing,
  106. (1990). A History of English Christianity 1920-1990 doi
  107. (1992). A History of Hypnotism (Cambridge: doi
  108. a lecturer in psychology at
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  110. (1915). A Pleafor the 7horough and Unbiased Investigation of Christian Science and a Challenge to its Critics, 2nd ed.
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  114. (1909). Addington Bruce in the American publication Outlook
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  116. (1936). Alini4 Akdicine and Aktaphysics: The Philosophy of a Physician (London:
  117. (1910). Also see the statement made by A.
  118. (1864). among his other publications, The Great Har7nonia: Being a Philosophical Revelation of the Natural, Spiritual and Celestial Universe
  119. (1919). An Amazing Uance and An Exposure
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  121. (1988). An Introduction to the Social History of Nursing doi
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  123. (1894). archives. 'Massage and the Aristocracy',
  124. (1984). archives. 'The Massage "Scandal"', The Nurse or Hygieia
  125. As the BMJ realised in 1910, the Church had suddenly 'awakened to the need of 12 not leaving the healing of the sick by spiritual means to its rivals'.
  126. Astounding Revelations Concerning Supposed Massage Houses or Pandemoniums of Vice, Frequented by Both Sexes,
  127. be examined in more detail in chapter four Christian healers tended to take the most integrated approach.
  128. (1909). Before examining the changing relationshiP between orthodox medicine and spiritual healing in any more detail it is perhaps pertinent first to consider 'a Comments made by Dr Claye Shaw at a meeting of the Harveian Society
  129. (1934). Beyon& A Continuation of "The Seekers", Further Talks by "Dr Lascelles ", Yd edition (London: Daniel Co.,
  130. (1998). Bowler describes the enduring historical belief in substantive linear religious decline after 1900 'an artefact of historians' neglect'. Bowler, Reconciling Science and Religion,
  131. (1936). Box 190, 'Historical Notes by Dame Rosalind Paget, c. 1936% from Paget's rough notes for a speech to be given
  132. (1900). Brown among others has pointed out that, despite the ferninisation of religiosity, formal roles for women within the Christian churches were slow in forn-dng. By
  133. (1933). Brown was the Wilde Reader in Mental Philosophy at Oxford University. His interest in neuropsychology was, like Dr William Rivers, sparked by his experience of shell-shocked troops during the First World War.
  134. (1904). Christian Religion: - The Anglican Guild of Health was set up in Britain in
  135. (1947). Christus Integritas: A Pleafor Christian Healing (London: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge,
  136. (1959). Cloud was Roberts' principal spirit guide and, as his name suggests, had been in life a Native American Indian. Estelle Roberts, Forty Years a Medium (London: Herbert Jenkins,
  137. (1990). Contemporary Folk Medicine'
  138. (1998). Cooter's introduction and Barrow's article 'An Imponderable Liberator:
  139. (1909). could hardly avoid discussing spiritual healing and mental suggestion 'with regard to spiritual life because it was with this that suggestion was concerned'. Quoted by 'The Mind as a Therapeutic Agent',
  140. (1927). Diagnosis and Spiritual Healing (London: Kegan Paul, doi
  141. (1982). Eddy, the American founder of Christian Science, did not dispatch the first Christian Scientist lecturer to England until 1897. Cited by Stuart Mews, 'The Revival of Spiritual Healing in the Church of England, 1920-26'
  142. (1953). Edwards, 7he Evidencefor Spiritual Healing (London:
  143. (1930). Encyclical Letterfrom the Bishops with Resolutions and Reports (London: Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge,
  144. (1952). Examples taken from the Psychic News and Two Worlds of
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  146. (2000). For background information on Dearmer see Donald Gray, Percy Dear7ner. A Parson's Pilgrimage (Norwich:
  147. (1952). for example, Arthur Dakin, Spiritual Healing: An Address Delivered at the Annual Meeting of the Baptist Ministers'
  148. (2000). for example, Graham Richards, 'Psychology and the Churches in Britain 1919-39: Symptoms of Conversion', doi
  149. (1966). For more information on the Victorian and Edwardian Church and attitudes to religion see especially Owen Chadwick, The Victorian Church,
  150. (1955). foreword to David Caradog Jones, Spiritual Healing: An Objective Study of a Perennial Grace (London: Longmans,
  151. (1959). Forty Years a Medium (London: Herbert Jenkins,
  152. Frayling, The Questfor Spiritual Healing (London: Rider,
  153. (1927). Freud 'The Future of an Illusion' doi
  154. (1987). Fringe and Medical Orthodoxy (London, Croom Helm, doi
  155. From a speech given by Miss Eleanor Reed at a meeting at Kensington Town Hall where the 1914 Clerical and Medical Committee Report was roundly criticised by advocates of spiritual healing. Reported by The Times,
  156. (1941). functional and organic disease were increasingly admitted as being somewhat interdependent terms, as they had 64 Report of the Committee of Mental Health
  157. (1977). God is My Witness: The Story of the World-Famous Healer (London: Arthur Baker,
  158. (1982). Greatrakes the Stroker: The Interpretations of His Contemporaries', doi
  159. (1909). Greatrakes to Robert Boyle, quoted in 'A Seventeenth-Century Spiritual Healer',
  160. Hadfield and Leonard Browne likewise recommended in 1925 that 'all who [had] to deal with the soul' would benefit from some training in psychology, and the same point was made
  161. (1994). Hands: The History of the Chartered Society of Physiotherapy 1894-1994 doi
  162. He suggests hunger, a diseased tooth and long fingernails as examples of maladies requiring purely physical remedies. Anson, Spiritual Healing, p. 4; letter from Harold Anson,
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  167. Healing Through Pra-ver / Absent Healing Despite the perceived importance of touch in many spiritual philosophies of healing it is important to note that far from all such healing actually involved 83
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  169. (1914). Healing, wrote Newbolt, could thus never expect to be 'the senior partner in the healing
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  171. (1986). Independent Spirits: Spiritualism and English Plebeians 1850-1910 doi
  172. Influential healer and Methodist minister Leslie Weatherhead could thus describe 'the forgiveness of God'
  173. (1957). Life is the Healer
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  178. (1944). Ltttcr from Ilorace Dowling. 'Dangers of Lay Psychotherapy'.
  179. (1993). Magnetic Sleep and the Roots of Psychological Healing (London: doi
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  184. (1998). Mesmerize& Powers of Mind in Victorian Britain (Chicago: doi
  185. (2004). Mews recounts that it was once said of Davison that 'he saw the shadows of tigers behind all the bushes in the jungle'. Quoted by Stuart Mews, 'Davidson, Randall Thomas, Baron Davidson of Lambeth (1848-1930)', Oxford Dictionary of National Biography,
  186. Modem Miracles of Healing'. doi
  187. (1955). My Life in Two Worlds,
  188. (1945). Natural Causes and Supernatural Seemings (London: Kegan Paul, doi
  189. (1915). Nerve Injuries, Especially With Regard to the Wounded',
  190. other religion except Buddhism, Nelson notes, claims to be thus based on 'demonstrable facts'. ibid,
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  192. (1911). p. 6, column c; Henson,
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  194. (1915). Paths to Health', The Rally: Being the
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  197. (1994). Policing Morals: The Metropolitan Police and the Home Office, 1870-1914 doi
  198. President of the Royal College of Surgeons in 1910 and was a widely published surgical author. His Human Anatomy (1898) was a seminal work, which remained influential for the next half a century.
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  202. (1998). Purity and Pollution: Gender, Embodiment and Victorian Medicine doi
  203. quoted as the 'immortal sentence' of Christian Science by Sir Henry Morris in ... Suggestion" in the Treatment of Disease',
  204. (1911). Quoted by 'Report on the Subject of "Spiritual Healing", Submitted by the Council', Supplement to the BMJ,
  205. (1942). quoted by Edwards, The Science of Spirit Healing,
  206. Quoted from the BMJ's report on a discussion of the Harveian
  207. Rayner explained in a letter to The Times in 1923, for example, is known to 'result in [a] great increase of blood supply to the brain and 134 Sir Clifford Allbutt, 'Reflections on Faith Healing',
  208. Reconciling Science doi
  209. (1989). Reconciling Science and Religion, p. 203. See also D. Bebbington, Evangelicalism in Modem Britain: A Historyfrom the 1730s to the 1980s (London: Unwin Hyman,
  210. (2001). Reconciling Science and Religion: The Debate in Early Twentieth-Century Britain (Chicago: doi
  211. (2001). Reconciling Science and Religion: The Debate in Early-Twentieth Century Britain (Chicago: doi
  212. Reflections on Faith Healing', doi
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  214. (1996). Religion in the Modem World From Cathedrals to Cults (Oxford:
  215. (1996). Religion in the Modem World, p. 3 1; Hugh McLeod, Religion and Society in England 1850-1914 doi
  216. Remarks on Spiritual Healing', doi
  217. Remarks on Spiritual I lealing', doi
  218. (1920). Repon ofa Clerical and Medical Committee of Inquiry, p. 13; The Ministry of Healing: Report of the Committee Appointed
  219. (1924). Report of a healing church service given by James Moore Hickson in Paddington in
  220. (1929). Report of the Psycho-Analysis Committee (London: BNIA.
  221. (1911). Report on the Subject of "Spiritual Healing7, Submitted by the Council', Supplement to the BMJ,
  222. (1954). respectively. Wellcome Library, Contemporary Medical Archives Centre,
  223. (1987). Sexual Undenvorlds of the Enlightenment (Manchester
  224. (1914). Sheryl Root 119 I cannot describe that touch, but when I awoke I was free from pain, feeling quite strong
  225. (1930). Sheryl Root 201 to the controversial pre-Enlightenment mechanistic philosophies of thinkers such as Robert Boyle and Rene Descartes and the rational Enlightenment philosophy of thinkers such as Benedict Spinoza and
  226. (1910). Sheryl Root 250 primarily an art, and the sooner the scientific psychologist recognises his limitations the less likely he will be to expose himself to criticism'. 55 This new attitude gradually began to permeate every part of medicine.
  227. (1935). Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge,
  228. (1914). Spiritual Healing
  229. (1927). Spiritual Healing and Medical Theory: A Paper Read at a Meeting of the Hunterian Society on November 9th, 1925, in the Course of a Debate Opened by the Right Reverend the Bishop of Kensington'
  230. Spiritual Healing and the Church', The Contemporary Review,
  231. (1924). Spiritual Healing in the English Church', doi
  232. (1923). Spiritual Healing: A Discussion of the Religious Element in Physical Health (London:
  233. (1952). Spiritual Healing: An Address Delivered at the Annual Meeting of the Baptist Ministers'
  234. (1955). Spiritual Healing: An Objective Study of a Perennial Grace (London: Longmans,
  235. (1955). Spiritual Healing: An Objective Study ofa Perennial Grace (London: Longmans,
  236. (1904). Spiritual Healing: Its Philosophy, Science, Religion and Practice
  237. (1904). Spiritual Healing: Its Philosophy, Science, Religion and Practice (London:
  238. (1904). Spiritual Healing: Its Philosophy, Science, Religion and Practice (London: Danby
  239. (1925). Spiritual lkaling: Report ofa Clerical and Akdical Committee of inquiry,
  240. (2000). Spiritualism and British Society Between she Wars (Manchester
  241. (1989). Spiritualism and British Society Between the Wars (Manchester: doi
  242. (1985). Spiritualism and British Society, chapter seven and Janet Oppenheim,
  243. (1954). Sports Injuries: Prevention and Active Treatment (London: Max Parrish,
  244. (1910). Suggestion" in the Treatment of Disease',
  245. (1955). Table 2: Distribution of Types of Illnesses in the Case Studies Examined by David Caradog Jones, Spiritual Healing: An Objective Study of a Perennial Grace (London: Longmans,
  246. (1910). The article was a sympathetic review of Dr L Loewenfeld of Munich's
  247. (1909). The BMJ do not give the source of this statistic, nor do they say whether it refers to Christian Scientists
  248. (1982). The Church and Healing: Papers Read at the Twentieth Summer Meeting and the Tiventy-First Winter Meeting of the Ecclesiastical History Society doi
  249. (1924). the Clerical and Medical Committee of Inquiry Report
  250. (1994). The Darkened Room, p. 109. Mesmeric diagnosis was performed without the medium of the aura. See also
  251. The Death of doi
  252. The Death of Christian Britain: Understanding Secularisation 1800-2000 (LA)ndon: doi
  253. The doctor reporting the case was a
  254. (1909). The Emmanuel Movement engendered as much medical opposition as medical support in both America and England during the early twentieth century. See Cunningham, 'The Emmanuel Movemcnt',
  255. (1962). The Emmanuel Movement: A Variety of American Religious Experience', doi
  256. (1953). The Evidencefor Spiritual Healing (London:
  257. (1945). The Evidencefor Spiritual Healing,
  258. The Faith That Heals', doi
  259. (1997). The Female Malady. chapter seven,
  260. (2004). The First Seventy-Five Years of the Guild of Health: Pamphlet No.
  261. (1908). the former Bishop of Bombay, in Hickson's The Healer in
  262. The Gift of Healing,
  263. (1956). The Gift of Healing, p. 2 1; Margaret Frayling, The Questfor Spiritual Healing (London: Rider,
  264. (1943). The Gift of Healing: The Story of Lilley the Healer (London:
  265. (1943). The Gift of Healing: The Story of Lilley the Healer (London: Psychic Press,
  266. (1948). The Growth of a Profession: Being the History of the Chartered Society of Physiotherapy,
  267. (1944). the Honorary Treasurer of the Guild of Pastoral Psychology. 'Lay Psychotherapy',
  268. (1909). The Journal subsequently criticised The Healer for being 'unintentionally ... misleading'. 'Spiritual Healing
  269. (1914). The Living Touch (London:
  270. The medical establishment itself realised this, the BAM writing in 1910 for example: Now science is less cocksure about a great many things, and men are not so ready as they were ... to declare that what they do not know is not knowledge.
  271. (1939). The Menace of the New Psychology
  272. (1909). The Mind as a Therapeutic Agent', doi
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