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Diet-induced dyslipidemia drives store-operated Ca2+ entry, Ca2+ dysregulation, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, and coronary atherogenesis in metabolic syndrome

By Zachary P. Neeb


Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI)Risk of coronary artery disease (CAD), the leading cause of death, greatly increases in metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome (MetS; obesity, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension) is increasing in prevalence with sedentary lifestyles and poor nutrition. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH; i.e. MetS liver) is progressive and decreases life expectancy, with CAD as the leading cause of death. Pathogenic Ca2+ regulation transforms coronary artery smooth muscle from a healthy, quiescent state to a diseased, proliferative phenotype thus majorly contributing to the development of CAD. In particular, store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) in vascular smooth muscle is associated with atherosclerosis. Genetic predisposition may render individuals more susceptible to Ca2+ dysregulation, CAD, NASH, and MetS. However, the metabolic and cellular mechanisms underlying these disease states are poorly understood. Accordingly, the goal of this dissertation was to investigate the role of dyslipidemia within MetS in the development of Ca2+ dysregulation, CAD, and NASH. The overarching hypothesis was that dyslipidemia within MetS would be necessary for induction of NASH and increased SOCE that would primarily mediate development of CAD. To test this hypothesis we utilized the Ossabaw miniature swine model of MetS. Swine were fed one of five diets for different lengths of time to induce varying severity of MetS. Lean swine were fed normal maintenance chow diet. F/MetS swine were fed high Fructose (20% kcal) diet that induced normolipidemic MetS. TMetS were fed excess high Trans-fat/cholesterol atherogenic diet that induced mildly dyslipidemic MetS and CAD. XMetS were TMetS swine with eXercise. DMetS (TMetS + high fructose) were moderately dyslipidemic and developed MetS and extensive CAD. sDMetS (Short-term DMetS) developed MetS with mild dyslipidemia, but no CAD. MMetS (Mixed-source-fat/cholesterol/fructose) were severely dyslipidemic, exhibited NASH, and developed severe CAD. Dyslipidemia in MetS predicted NASH severity (all groups < DMetS << MMetS), CAD severity (i.e. Lean, F/MetS, sDMetS < XMetS < TMetS < DMetS < MMetS), and was necessary for STIM1/TRPC1-mediated SOCE, which preceded CAD. Exercise ameliorated SOCE and CAD compared to TMetS. In conclusion, dyslipidemia elicits TRPC1/STIM1 SOCE that mediates CAD, is necessary for and predictive of NASH and CAD, and whose affects are attenuated by exercise

Topics: Dyslipidemias, Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, Coronary atherogenesis, Metabolic syndrome, Coronary heart disease -- Risk factors, Fatty liver, Atherosclerosis
Year: 2010
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Provided by: IUPUIScholarWorks

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