The Mediator complex forms the bridge between gene-specific transcription factors and the RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) machinery. Mediator is a large polypetide complex consisting of about thirty polypeptides that are mostly conserved from yeast to human. Mediator coordinates RNAP II recruitment, phosphorylation of the C-terminal domain of RNAP II, enhancer-loop formation and post-initiation events. The focus of the review is to summarize the current knowledge of transcription factor/Mediator interactions in higher eukaryotes and illuminate the physiological and gene-selective roles of Mediator
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