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Determina????o da efici??ncia ambiental relativa no setor de avia????o comercial : uma abordagem DEA

By Ana Cristine Heinen

Abstract

As iniciativas ambientais no setor de transporte a??reo t??m sido tema de debates internacionais. A m??xima efici??ncia dos recursos ambientais deve ser buscada e, em resultado, obter lucro com a m??nima libera????o de poluentes. Isso significa ser ecoeficiente. Assim, o objetivo desta disserta????o ?? determinar a efici??ncia t??cnica ambiental das empresas a??reas brasileiras. A metodologia utilizada foi a An??lise Envolt??ria de Dados (DEA), com base no modelo CCR, e orientada a insumo. As vari??veis utilizadas no estudo como insumos s??o: frota, n??mero de funcion??rios de voo, n??mero de funcion??rios terra e consumo de combust??vel em litros. Como produtos s??o utilizados passageiros vezes quil??metro pago transportado, tonelada vezes quil??metro utilizada paga e n??mero de horas em terra. Foram propostos dois modelos para a an??lise dos dados, o de transporte de passageiros e o de carga. Foi poss??vel identificar a efici??ncia relativa de cada organiza????o e, ap??s isso, verificar o percentual de melhoria dos insumos das unidades ineficientes, quando o objetivo ?? que estas se projetem na fronteira de efici??ncia. A partir da aplica????o DEA e com base no consumo de combust??vel em litros, p??de-se estimar, al??m das quantidades totais de emiss??es de CO2 das empresas, o quanto ?? poss??vel minimiz??-los de forma relativa ??s unidades eficientes. Concluiu-se com os resultados que, entre as empresas que prestam servi??o de transporte de passageiros, as mais eficientes s??o as que proporcionam voos de maiores dist??ncias e obt??m maior participa????o de mercado. Entre elas est??o a Azul, a Tam, a Webjet e a Gol/Vrg. Em rela????o ??s empresas que prestam servi??o de transporte de carga, s??o eficientes a Absa e a Master Top. Quanto ??s emiss??es de CO2 a quantidade estimada com rela????o ??s atividades de voo das empresas no ano de 2010 ?? de 10.991 GgCO2. As empresas do transporte de carga s??o respons??veis por 365,70 GgCO2. E do transporte de passageiros 10625,62 GgCO2. ?? poss??vel a redu????o de 226 GgCO2, o que representa uma redu????o de 2,05% do total de emiss??es das empresas. Para o transporte de carga, ?? poss??vel a minimiza????o de 60,62 GgCO2, representando redu????o de 0,55% do total de emiss??es das empresas.The Environmental initiatives in the aero transportation have been the topic of international debates. The maximum efficiency of the natural resources have to be achieved, and at the same time, there must have profits with minimum pollutants emission. That means being ecoefficient. So, the purpose of this work is to determine the environmental technical efficiency of the Brazilian airlines. The used methodology was Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), based on the CCR model and input orientation. The variables used as inputs in the study are: fleet, number of flight cabin crew, number of ground staff and fuel consumption in liters. As products are used passengers transported paid times kilometer, paid tons times kilometer and is used as negative product the hours on ground. Two models were suggested for data analysis: the passengers transport and the cargo. It was possible to identify the relative efficiency of each organization and, after that, to identify the input improvement percentage of the inefficient units, when the goal is that they project themselves on the efficiency frontier. From the DEA application and based on the fuel liter consumption, it was estimated, beyond the total quantity of CO2 emissions from the companies, how much it is possible to minimize them relatively to the efficient units. Therefore, it was concluded that, among the companies that transport passengers, the most efficient are the ones that have longer flights and have more market share. In relation to those companies which provide cargo service, the ones that are efficient are Absa and Master Top. Regarding to CO2 emissions, the estimated quantity related to the companies??? flight activities in 2010 is 10.991 GgCO2. The cargo companies are responsible for 365,70 GgCO2, whereas the passengers transport companies are responsible for 10.625,62 GgCO2. It is possible to reduce 226 GgCO2, that represents a reduction of 2.05% from the companies??? total emissions. For the cargo transport, it is possible to minimize 60,62 GgCO2, representing a reduction of 0,55% from the companies??? total emissions

Topics: Efici??ncia, Efici??ncia ambiental, Avia????o comercial civil, An??lise envolt??ria de dados, Efficiency, Environmental efficiency, Civil commercial aviation, Data envelopment analysis, ACCNPQ::Ci??ncias Sociais Aplicadas::Ci??ncias Cont??beis
Publisher: Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos
Year: 2012
OAI identifier: oai:agregador.ibict.br.BDTD_UNISINOS:oai:www.repositorio.jesuita.org.br:UNISINOS/3573
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