The genus Mycobacterium is well represented by Mycobacterium bovis, the etiological agent of bovine tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infects domestic cattle, wild ruminants and zoo animals leading to chronic enteritis known as paratuberculosis. The infection is chronic, progressive and unresponsive to treatment. Most infected animals do not develop clinical disease but may excrete the bacteria. Clinically sick animals suffer emaciation and in some species diarrhoea, followed by eventual death. During the course of the disease, excretion of MAP in faeces and milk occurs. Though Paratuberculosis is not classified as a zoonosis, current opinions on the possible role of this mycobacteria in public health is discussed. Bovine tuberculosis is a disease characterised by the progressive development of characteristic granulomas, or tubercles, in the lungs, lymph nodes or other organs. This disease is a well-known zoonotic disease which affects cattle world-wide, and causes major economic losses. The public health risk has been alleviated in many countries by the introduction of pasteurisation. Bovine tuberculosis was eradicated in Czech republic in 1968, but still a risk of infection through the importation of animals mainly to the zoological gardens
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