Speech processing systems have been developed for many years but the integration into devices had started with the deployment of the modern powerful computational systems. This dissertation thesis deals with development of the keyword detection system in speech data. The proposed detection system is based on the Large Margin and Kernel methods and the key part of the system is phoneme classifier. Two hierarchical frame-based classifiers have been proposed -- linear and non-linear. An efficient training algorithm for each of the proposed classifier have been introduced. Simultaneously, classifier based on the Gaussian Mixture Models with the implementation of the hierarchical structure have been proposed. An important part of the detection system is feature extraction and therefor all algorithms were evaluated on the current most common feature techniques. A part of the thesis technical solution was implementation of the keyword detection system in MATLAB and design of the hierarchical phoneme structure for Czech language. All of the proposed algorithms were evaluated for Czech and English language over the DBRS and TIMIT speech corpus
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