Location of Repository

Teachers' attitudes to inclusion in Ghana

By Emmanuel Kofi Gyimah


The purpose of this study was to survey the attitudes of teachers in Ghana towards children with special educational needs (SEN) and disabilities in relation to the UNESCO (1994) Salamanca Statement on inclusion. Using random sampling techniques, five. hundred and forty trained and un~rained mainstream Primary School teachers were selected from three of the ten regions of Ghana to respond to questionnaire items composed of educational placement options and bi-polar emotional reactions. Sixteen. of the participants were interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide consisfing of scenarios on the assessment results ofchildren with SEN and disabilities. The results, including chi-square analysis, showed that teachers in Ghana were generally positive towards the inclusion of children with SEN and disabilities. Their greatest 'concern, however, was with children with sensory disabilities (that is the deaf and blind) and severe to profound intellectual difficulties. In some of the SEN categories, statistically significant diffe~ences were found between teachers in terms of gender, level of teaching experience, knowledge ofhow to teach children with SEN and disabilities and the location of school in terms region or level of urbanisation. However, no differences were found between teachers in attitudes to inclusion in terms of age, qualification or length of teaching experience. Further, the results showed that irrespective of a teacher's gender, level of experience and/or knowleage of SEN and disabilities, teachers generally experienced anxiety, dissatisfaction and worry in teaching children with SEN and disabilities. On the basis of the fmdings, conclusions were drawn that global agendas are subject to national and local interpretation. It therefore sounds logical' for research and . policies to be context specific. This way, attitudes could be better understood and policies and regulations on SEN fashioned to meet local situations and standards

Publisher: School of Education (Leeds)
Year: 2006
OAI identifier: oai:etheses.whiterose.ac.uk:222

Suggested articles



  1. 1) Deconstructing special education and constructing inclusion.
  2. (1988). 4ttitudes, personality and behaviour. Milton Keynes:
  3. (2002). A practical guide to behavioural research tools and techniques
  4. (1982). A sociology of special education. London: Routledgc and Kegan Paul.
  5. (2001). A study of the attitudes of primary school teachers in Harare towards the inclusion of blind children in regular classes. doi
  6. (1932). A techniquefor the measurement ofattitudes.
  7. (1957). A theory of cognitive dissonance. doi
  8. (2004). A: History and changes to the definition of 'Urban Area' and 'Rural Area. Internet WWW page, at URL:
  9. (1994). Acting as we feel: when and how attitudes guide behaviour,
  10. (1998). Adapting instruction to accommodate students in inclusive settings (3'd doi
  11. (1989). Administrators' and teachers' attitudes towards mainstrearning. doi
  12. (1998). An examination of the practical problems associated with the implementation of inclusive education policies. Supportfor Learning, doi
  13. (1996). Appreciating the classification dilemma,
  14. (2004). Association for the Development of Education in Africa. Ghana Education. Brief history ofeducational development
  15. (1989). Association of Persons with Severe Handicaps doi
  16. (2004). at --276--URL: //www. doi
  17. (2006). at URL:
  18. (1996). Attitudes and behaviour, doi
  19. (1988). Attitudes towardpersons with disabilities: progress and prospects,
  20. (1982). Attitudes, themes, and advances.
  21. (1996). Bad-Mouthing: the language ofspecial needs. doi
  22. (1975). Belief, attitude, intention and behaviour: an introduction to theory and research. doi
  23. (1970). Beliefs attitudes and values a theory oforganization and change. San Francisco: doi
  24. (2004). Beliefs of teachers in Italian schools concerning the inclusion of disabled students: aQ analysis. doi
  25. (1994). Beyond the methods fetish: towards a humanising pedagogy. Harvard Education Review,
  26. (1997). Business research methods.
  27. (2000). Centre for Studies on Inclusive Education (CSIE). CSIE home page. Internet VrWW page, at URL: //inclusion.
  28. (1960). Cognitive, affectivc and bchavioural components of attitudes, in
  29. (1988). Community provider's guide: an information outlinefor working with children with special needs.
  30. (1972). Conducting educational research. doi
  31. (2006). Courts have 'too many children' Tuesday,
  32. Curriculum Autbority (QCA)/DfEE (2001) Planning, leaching and assessing the curriculuni for pupils with learning diffi'culties: developing skills.
  33. (1997). Deaf children in public schools: placement, context and consequences. doi
  34. (2006). Definition ofsampling error.
  35. (2005). Departmental differences in attitudes to special educational needs in the secondary school. doi
  36. (2005). Developing inclusive education systems: what are the levers for change? doi
  37. (1996). Developmental delay as an eligibility category. Denver: Division for Early Childhood.
  38. (2005). Dilemmas in the quest for inclusion. doi
  39. (2006). Discourses of indiscipline: an infonnal Hobbesian riposte to Cate Watson. Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties, doi
  40. (1996). Do special educational needs courses have any impact on student teachers' perceptions of children with severe learning difficulties? doi
  41. (2000). Doing justice to inclusion. doi
  42. (2005). Early identification of children with developmental coordination disorder, in
  43. (2006). Ecological systems theory, in
  44. (2001). Educating children with Down's syndrome in the United Arab Emirates. doi
  45. (2000). Education and Employment (DfEE) doi
  46. (2004). Education and Skills doi
  47. (1995). Education for all: making it happen. doi
  48. (1998). Education in Ghana and special needs children.
  49. (2004). Education Policy Studies. Enhancing participation, expanding access: the double axis ofsustainable educational development. Directions ill policy and practicefor educating all children.
  50. (1995). Educators' beliefs about inclusive practices in Western Australia. doi
  51. (1995). Effective organisational, instructional and curricular practices in inclusive schools and classrooms,
  52. (1994). Eniotional and behavioural dijftculties: theory to practice.
  53. (2003). Enrolment and Stajfing Data.
  54. (1989). Ethnography: step by step. Thousand Oaks: doi
  55. (1992). Everyone belongs.
  56. (1997). Excellencefor all children: meeting special educational needs.
  57. (1996). Exceptional children: an introduction to special education (5'h doi
  58. (2001). Facilitating communication between education and health services: the provision for children with speech and language needs. doi
  59. (1998). Four inclusion modcls that work. Teaching Exceptional Children,
  60. (2003). From integration to inclusion: focusing on global trends and changes in the Western European societies. doi
  61. (1998). From them to us, an international study of inclusion. doi
  62. (2006). Funology: from usability to enjoyment.. Internet WWW page, at URL:
  63. (2004). General education teachers in the United Arab Emirates and their acceptance of the inclusion of students with disabilities. doi
  64. (2006). High institutions urged to research into child disability. Ghana Today on the Web. Internet
  65. (1986). How do attitudes guide behaviour?,
  66. (2000). How teachers manage their work in inclusive classrooms. doi
  67. (1993). How to design and evaluate research
  68. (2005). I am conducting a study on: TEACHERS' ATTITUDES TO INCLUSION IN GHANA. The sampled regions are: Central Ashanti and Northern Regions. The study which is scheduled for between April
  69. (2003). ICT based solutions for special educational needs in Ghana. A strategic planning document for use by the Special Education Division (SpED) to integrate ICT to support the delivery of the Ghana Education Service's core objectives.
  70. (2000). Identification and assessment for children with disabilities in Ghana. Ife Psychologia, doi
  71. (1998). Implementing instructional adaptations for students with disabilities in inclusive classrooms: a literature review. Remedial and Special Education, doi
  72. (1996). Implications of inclusion for general and special education. doi
  73. (1992). Implications of research on belief. doi
  74. (1996). Improving student outcomes through inclusive education. Supportfor Learning, doi
  75. (2002). Including pupils with special educational needs: beyond rhetoric and towards an understanding of effective practice. doi
  76. (2001). Inclusion in education: comparing pupils' development in special and regular education. doi
  77. (1999). Inclusion of students with learning disabilities: an examination of data from reports to Congress. Exceptional Children,
  78. (1996). Inclusion-where are we today?
  79. (1995). Inclusion: one way a professional development school can make a difference. Childbod Education,
  80. (2004). Inclusion: the dynanfic ofschool developnient. Buckingham: Open University Press.
  81. (1996). Inclusion: what is, what it's not, and why it matters. Exceptional Parent,
  82. (2005). Inclusion', 'special needs' and the search for new understandings. Supportfor Learning, doi
  83. (2005). Inclusive education for children with special needs as a component of universal basic education (UBE) programme in Nigeria: a pointer to other developing nations.
  84. (2005). Inclusive education in some Western European countries: different policy rhetorics and school realities, in
  85. (2005). Inclusive education in the globalisation age the promise of comparative cultural-historic analysis, in
  86. (2003). Inclusive education: a critical perspective. doi
  87. (2003). Inclusive education: achieving educationfor all by including those with disabilities and special educational needs.
  88. (2005). Inclusive education: the challenges of the 21" century, Nigerian-Ghanaian teacher.
  89. (2004). Intemct WWW page, at URL: //www.
  90. (1996). International developments in inclusive education: mapping the issues. doi
  91. (1985). Introduction to research in education (3'd ed).
  92. (1994). Introduction to the professions, in doi
  93. (2005). Introduction; sixteen propositions on the contexts of inclusive education, in
  94. (2001). Introduction: whose ethics, which research? doi
  95. (2003). Issues in educating exceptional children in Africa,
  96. (2004). Judgments of successful inclusion by education personnel. doi
  97. (1997). Key lessons learned about inclusive education: summary of the doi
  98. (2003). Leadership and inclusion: a special school perspective. Leadership and Inclusion, doi
  99. (1990). Learning characteristics of students with special needs and the provision of effective schooling, in A
  100. (2000). Learning disabilities theories, diagnosis, and leaching strategies
  101. (1996). Learning in inclusive classrooms: what about the curriculum? in
  102. (2000). Let's remember the 'education' in inclusive education. doi
  103. (2005). Let's take the special out of special needs,
  104. (2004). Library of Congress. Population of Ghana. Urban-rural disparities.. Internet WWW page, at URL: //countrystudies.
  105. (1993). Living and learning with blind children: a guidefor parents and teachers of visually impaired children. Toronto: doi
  106. (2003). Mainstream teachers' acceptance of instructional adaptations in Spain. doi
  107. (1983). Mainstreaming students with mild handicaps: academic and social outcomes. doi
  108. (2003). Making sense of the development of inclusive practice. doi
  109. (2002). Making special education inclusive: mapping the issues, in
  110. (1999). Mapping a pedagogy for special educational needs. doi
  111. (2001). Mapping pedagogy for special educational needs. doi
  112. (1980). Measures of regular classroom teachers' attitudes toward handicapped children.
  113. (1975). Medical aspects,
  114. (2001). Meeting special needs in mainstream schools: a practical guidefor teachers (2 doi
  115. (1994). Mental health, job satisfaction and occupational stress among UK teachers. Work and Stress, doi
  116. (2003). Mental retardation, in doi
  117. (1992). Mental retardation: definition, classification and systems
  118. (2004). Methodological challenges in researching inclusive school cultures. doi
  119. (2002). Models of disability in the labelling and attitudinal discourse doi
  120. (2005). Models of intervention: towards an ccodevelopmental approach, in
  121. (1995). Motivational factors related to differcnccs in selfschernas. Motivation and Emotion, doi
  122. (1995). New Orleans: Children's Hospital t t
  123. (1996). Observing schools: a methodological guide.
  124. (1997). Occupational stress and burnout among special educators: a review of the international literature. doi
  125. (2001). OECD/DAC Dialogues OECD/DAC Dialogues with Developing Countries on National Strategies for Sustainable Development, Status review of national strategiesfor sustainable development in Ghana.
  126. (2000). OECDIDA C Dialogues with Developing Countries on National Strategiesfor Sustainable Development Ghana country progress report.
  127. (1989). On the power and functionality of attitudes: the role of attitude accessibility,
  128. (1998). Outcomes for students with and without learning disabilities in inclusive classroom. doi
  129. (1996). Pathwaysfor exceptional children, school, honle, and culture.
  130. (2005). Philosophy, politics and economics? The story of inclusive education in England,
  131. (1997). Physical education, in
  132. (2005). Preparing teachers to teach pupils with special educational needs in more inclusive schools: evaluating a PGCE development. doi
  133. (1996). Prevention of violence and antisocial doi
  134. (2003). Principals' views and practices regarding inclusion: the case of Israeli elementary school principals. doi
  135. (2002). Productivity with word order and morphology: a comparative look at children with SLI and children with normal language abilities. doi
  136. (2000). Pronioting Inclusive education in Basic Schools in Winneba Circuit: the role ofschool attachnientprogramnie.
  137. (1980). Qualitative evaluation methods (2 nd cd.
  138. (1997). Quality education for all: overcoming barriers to learning and development.
  139. (1992). Questionnaire design, interviewing and attitude measurement.
  140. (1994). Questionnaire design: a practical introduction. Newton Abbey:
  141. (1995). Race and ethnic background in the annual survey of deaf and hard of hearing children and youth. A merican A nnals of the Deaf, doi
  142. (2004). Rationale of Greece-Cyprus unified education: a teachers' and parents'beliefs study. doi
  143. (2002). Real world research (2
  144. (2004). Research methods in education (5'h doi
  145. (1992). Research methods in the social sciences. London: Edward Arnold. doi
  146. (2006). resource packfor the proniotion of iniproved learning opportunitiesfor street children. Internet WWW page, at URL:
  147. (2005). Resources or educating children with diverse abilities: birth through eight (4'
  148. (1997). Restructuring for caring and effective doi
  149. (1997). Restructuring special education provision,
  150. (1990). Rethinking the regular education initiative: focus on the classroom teacher. doi
  151. (1992). Returning to the basics: a curriculum at Harpcnbury Hospital School, in
  152. (2002). S ecial educational needs in the primary school a practical guide I
  153. (1996). Se? r-esteem and adjusting in blindness: the process of responding to life's demands (2nd cd.
  154. (1994). Segregation and inclusion: English LEA statistics 1988-92. Bristol: Centre for Studies on Inclusive Education.
  155. (2006). Segregation, integration and inclusion-the ideology and reality in Finland. doi
  156. (2005). SEN -a politically correct phrase to replace terms such as disabled? ' A study of the views of students entering a secondary PGCE course. Supportfor Learning, doi
  157. (2001). Service to the mentally challenged: the case of twin-city special school for the mentally handicapped, Sckondi-Takoradi. Ife Psychologia, doi
  158. (2004). Service, the Basic Education Division
  159. (1984). Social cognition. London:
  160. (2000). Social Psychology
  161. (2001). Some aspects of the Inclusion Index in operation. doi
  162. (2001). Some historical perspectives in the development of special education in Ghana. doi
  163. (2001). South Africa: first steps in the development of an inclusive education system. doi
  164. (1995). Special education a practical approach for teachers (3 doi
  165. (1978). Special Educational Needs (The Warnock Report).
  166. (2005). Special educational needs: a new look. London: Philosophy of Education Society of Great Britain.
  167. (2004). Special educational needs: a resourcefor practitioners.
  168. (2005). Special Educational Needs: an alternative look (A Response to Warnock M.
  169. (1992). Special needs: personal trouble or public issue,
  170. (1997). Standard of Classification of Education (ISCED) doi
  171. (2003). Statistics ofeducation: special educational needs in
  172. (2002). Statutory assessments and statements of SEN. in need of review? London: Audit Commission.
  173. (1989). Stress in teaching and teacher effectiveness: a case study of teachers across mainstream and special education. doi
  174. (2005). Studies on Inclusive Education (CSIE) doi
  175. (1996). Teacher and administrator perceptions of heterogeneous education.
  176. (1998). Teacher attitudes in Italy after twenty years of inclusion. doi
  177. (1994). Teacher attitudes toward mainstrearning: a cross-cultural study in 6 nations. doi
  178. (2001). Teacher contact with parents of children with special educational needs: a comparison over two decades. doi
  179. (2000). Teacher education reform effort for inclusion classrooms: knowledge versus pedagogy. Chula Vista,
  180. (1996). Teacher efficacy: toward the understanding of a multi-faccted construct. doi
  181. (1996). Teacher perceptions of mainstream / inclusion,
  182. (1997). Teacher stress: a review of the international literature.
  183. (2003). Teacher training in Ghana-does it count? London: DFID Educational Papers Series.
  184. (2006). Teacher Views Concerning Inclusion in General and Inclusion in Specific. Joumal of Integrative Psychology. Intemet WWW page, at URL: //www.
  185. (2000). Teachers understanding of interactive approaches in special education. doi
  186. (1996). Teachers views of inclusion.
  187. (1987). Teachers' attitude towards the integration of disabled children into regular schools. Exceptional Child, 34,41-5 6. --266--Centre for Studies on Inclusive Education (CSIE) doi
  188. (2002). Teachers' attitudes towards integration / inclusion: a review of literature. doi
  189. (2001). Teachers' beliefs and practices related to mathematics instruction. doi
  190. (1986). Teachers' thought processes,
  191. (2005). Teachers' views of their pupils with profound and multiple learning difficulties. doi
  192. (1998). Teaching practices in classrooms for students with emotional and behavioral disorders: discrepancies between recommendations and observations. Behavior Disorders,
  193. (1995). Teaching special students in the mainstream. Englewood Cliffs:
  194. (1998). The alternative to ideological inclusion,
  195. (2004). The Constitution. Internet VAW page, at URL: //www.
  196. (1998). The cultural politics of integrating deaf students in regular schools doi
  197. (2004). The developing child
  198. (1994). The development ofattitudeformation to physical activity in children ofdifferent physical ability Leeds: School of Education
  199. (1975). The development ofeducation in Ghana. London: doi
  200. (1997). The discovery ofspoken language.
  201. (1992). The effect of social contact on college students' attitudes toward students with severe mental handicaps and their educational integration. doi
  202. (1998). The effects of an inclusive school program on students with mild and severe learning disabilities.
  203. (1994). The effects of inclusion on learning.
  204. (1980). The efficacy of special versus regular class placement for exceptional children: a meta-analysis. doi
  205. (1986). The elaboration likelihood model of persuasion, in doi
  206. (2000). The index for inclusion: developing learning and participation in schools.
  207. (2002). The more things change the more they stay the same? A response to the Audit Commission's report on statutory assessment and statements of SEN. doi
  208. (1992). The need to belong: rediscovering Maslow's hierarchy of needs, in
  209. (2001). The principle of assumed consent: the ethics of gate keeping. doi
  210. (1991). The psychology ofattitude change and social influence. New York: McGraw-Hill Inc. --282-APPENDIX A
  211. (1994). The Salamanca Statement andframeworkfor action on special needs education. Paris: Uncsco.
  212. (1990). The social effects of stereotyped behaviour. doi
  213. (1990). Thefifth discipline: the art andpractice of the learning organisation.
  214. (2002). Thinking inclusion. Whose reason? What evidence? doi
  215. (2004). Towards inclusive education schools: a study of inclusive education in practice. doi
  216. (1997). Towards inclusive schooling. doi
  217. (2003). Trends in special education,
  218. (1979). Understanding educational research: an introduction. doi
  219. (1999). Understanding the development of inclusive schools. doi
  220. (1948). Universal Declaration ofHuman Rights. Internet WWW page, at URL: //www.
  221. (2000). Using research to encourage the development of inclusive practice,
  222. What do you consider to be the advantages of teaching a child or children with SEN and disabilities in the mainstream? ii. What do you consider to be the disadvantages of teaching a child or children with SEN and disabilities in the mainstream?
  223. (2003). What the research says about ICT supporting special educational needs (SEN) in inclusion.
  224. (2000). What's so special? Teachers' models and their realisation in practice in segregated schools. doi
  225. (2006). WordNet Search - doi
  226. (1998). Would it work in theory? Arguments for practitioner and theorising in the field in London,
  227. (2000). Young children with special needs: an introduction to early childhood special education. Clifton Park: Thomson / Delmar Leaming.
  228. (1992). Zimbabwe teachers' attitudes towards integration of pupils with disabilities into regular classrooms. doi

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.