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    Techno-Economic Analysis of CO2 Capture Technologies for Small-Scale Dispatchable Gas Turbines

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    In order to achieve Net-Zero, small-scale dispatchable OCGTs need CCS. Within the literature, sources routinely overlook these small-scale generators, majority of which fall within the Medium Combustion Plant Directive (MCPD). Currently, these plants are not required to be carbon capture ready, but future energy system restraints will require CO2 abatement on these types of generators. Therefore, this study looks at evaluating CO2 capture for modern gas turbines, specifically looking at OCGTs under <50 MWe. This techno-economic analysis focusses on two CO2 capture technologies • Chemical Absorption using 30 wt.% Monoethanolamine (MEA). This is considered the benchmark CO2 capture technology for power generation sources, and it is currently the only technology deployed globally on a large scale power plant. • Vacuum-Pressure Swing Adsorption (VPSA) using Zeolite 13X. This technology and sorbent material is close to commercialisation. A large quantity of research already exists in the literature, with several pilot-scale studies. Within this study, process and economic models are developed and used to analyse the performance of each of the OCGT+CCS plants. Both capture plants work from identical CO2 sources, and to ensure an accurate comparison both CO2 streams are conditioned ready for pipeline transportation. This study has highlighted an important bottleneck in reaching Net-Zero by 2050. Dispatchable power is crucial for ensuring security of electricity supply; however, the current dispatchable technologies will become too costly if we attach CCS. Therefore, future work needs to investigate different capture and utilisation technologies in order to drive the levelised cost of electricity for OCGT+CCUS down. Moreover, OCGT+CCS needs to be compared against alternative dispatchable power sources such as hydrogen combustion and energy storage, to discover the most effective option for ensuring security of electricity supply

    The development, feasibility, and acceptability of a breakfast group intervention for stroke rehabilitation

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    Background: There are 1.2 million stroke survivors in the UK and the number is projected to increase significantly over the next decade. Research suggests that between 50% and 80% of hospitalised stroke survivors experience difficulties with eating and drinking. Presently, rehabilitation approaches to address these difficulties involve individual rehabilitation sessions led by uni-professionals. Recent national stroke guidance recommends that stroke survivors receive three hours of daily rehabilitation and emphasises the importance of addressing the psychosocial aspects of recovery. Implementing these recommendations presents a challenge to healthcare professionals, who must explore innovative methods to provide the necessary rehabilitation intensity. This study aimed to address these challenges by codesigning a multi-disciplinary breakfast group intervention and implementation toolkit to improve psychosocial outcomes. Methods: The Hawkins 3-step framework for intervention design was used to develop a multidisciplinary breakfast group intervention and to understand if it was acceptable and feasible for patients and healthcare professionals in an acute stroke ward. The Hawkins 3- steps were 1) evidence review and consultations 2) coproduction 3) prototyping. In collaboration with fifteen stakeholders, a prototype breakfast group intervention and implementation toolkit were codesigned over four months. Experience-based Codesign was used to engage stakeholders. Results: The literature review is the first to investigate the psychosocial impact of eating and drinking difficulties post stroke. The key finding was the presence of psychological and social impacts which included, the experience of loss, fear, embarrassment shame and humiliation as well as social isolation. Stroke survivors were striving to get back to normality and this included the desire to socially dine with others. Two prototype iterations of the intervention were tested with 16 stroke survivors across three hospital sites. The multidisciplinary breakfast group intervention was designed to offer intensive rehabilitation in a social group context. The codesigned implementation toolkit guided a personalised and tailored approach. A perceived benefit of the intervention was the opportunity to address the psychosocial aspects of eating and drinking rehabilitation as well as providing physical rehabilitation. Stroke survivors highly value the opportunity to socialise and receive support from their peers. The intervention was acceptable to both patients and healthcare professionals, and the workforce model proved practical and feasible to deliver using a collaborative approach in the context of resource-limited healthcare. Conclusions: The breakfast group interventions, developed through codesign, were positively received by patients and staff and feasible to deliver. They introduce an innovative and novel approach to stroke rehabilitation, personalised to each individual's needs, and offer a comprehensive intervention which addresses both physical and psychosocial aspects which target challenges related to eating and drinking. Unique contributions of this study include a theoretical model for breakfast group interventions, a programme theory and practical tool kit for clinicians to support the translation of research findings and implement breakfast groups in clinical practice

    The Long Note: The mediation and mediatisation of Irish traditional music on Irish public radio, 1970-1994

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    This thesis explores the mediation and mediatisation of Irish traditional music activity, ideas, and discourse in the period 1970-1994 through a case study of long-running Irish traditional music radio programme The Long Note (1974-c.1991) on Irish public broadcaster Radio Teilifís Éireann. The research explores the musical practices and aesthetics that are cultivated, curated, and created in national broadcasting. It focuses on the late twentieth century when practices within Irish musical traditions were slowly becoming subjects of debate. Reference to the structures and materials in use for the creation of music radio on the minority language station RnaG as well as in nearby BBC Ulster affords a comparative aspect to the research. The methodology of the study comprises ethnographic fieldwork, interviews with central figures in music broadcasting and associated industry and institutional figures from this era, and close analysis of both sound and print archival sources. This radio programming formed spaces for the articulation of Irish national identity and nationalism. Ideas were formed, received, acknowledged, eluded, discussed, and responded to within public broadcasting structures. Quantitative and qualitative inequities of representation in gender and ethnicity existed in this programming, foregrounding particular ideas of Irishness (male, settled). Liveness was a consistent theme in discourse surrounding the programme, categorised by separate taxonomies. Liveness was used to construct authenticity, and this process was connected to emerging discourses on tradition and innovation in this music which came to public attention in the mid-1990s. The historical perspective of this thesis adds to existing studies of mediation and mediatisation by coinciding with a period of accelerated development of Irish traditional music in the commercial realm, when Irish traditional musicians were beginning to present themselves on a larger scale as professional musicians. Radio was a site of important activity in this process, sowing roots for the global mediation and mediatisation of Irish folk and traditional music exemplified by Riverdance in the mid-1990s. Issues of representation, aesthetics and cultural nationalism also influenced the development of professionalism and commercialism in Irish traditional music in the period. This research contributes to the construction of an interdisciplinary framework for the exploration of the mediation and mediatisation of traditional music, furthering conversations on the impact of technology on musical communities, cultures, nations, and societies

    Thrust Layout Optimization for Masonry Structures

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    Form-resistant structures are efficient structural systems that can contribute to addressing the adverse climate impacts of the construction industry by reducing material usage. Also, the availability of improved assessment and strengthening methods for masonry form-resistant structures can extend the life of many ageing buildings and other structures, ensuring these are not needlessly replaced at great cost to the planet. Building on an observation by Hooke, Heyman’s ‘safe theorem’ has been widely used to assess the safety of form-resistant structures. However, Heyman used a funicular thrust line to represent equilibrium, which has been found to be problematic in some cases. Seeking to improve upon the funicular thrust line, the notion of a ‘thrust layout’ is presented here. This can accurately represent the state of equilibrium while also enabling visualization of the flow of forces within a form-resistant structure. This is achieved by explicit consideration of block stereotomy and more realistic treatment of tensile forces. A new automated analysis procedure, termed thrust layout optimization (TLO), is presented to allow identification of thrust layouts in masonry gravity structures comprising general arrangements of masonry blocks. The procedure employs a modified truss layout optimization with transmissible loads formulation and allows explicit consideration of sliding failures. A range of examples that demonstrate the efficacy of the TLO procedure are presented; these show that thrust line bifurcations can be automatically identified in problems involving openings, and that there is no need to estimate the ‘ineffective area’ in buttress wall problems, both issues encountered when using the traditional thrust line analysis method. The TLO procedure is then extended to determine the optimal placement of auxiliary strengthening measures. While current practice is to use engineering intuition to determine the placement of strengthening measures, TLO provides a more robust physics-based approach, with clear visualization of force flows in strengthened structures

    Characterisation of Blast Loading from Ideal and Non-Ideal Explosives

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    Explosive detonation in its simplest form can be characterised by an instantaneous release of energy at an infinitely small point in space as a solid explosive material. This is a result of chemical decomposition of an explosive which reforms as high pressure and temperature gases which expand radially. This supersonic expansion of detonation products compresses the surrounding medium resulting in a shock wave discontinuity which propagates away from an explosive epicentre at high speeds. This has the potential of significant damage to anything the shock wave interacts with. Shock wave quantification work conducted in 1940`s through to the 1980`s was done so to understand the effects of large scale explosive detonation which was an immediate threat due to the discovery of the nuclear bomb. Highly skilled experimental and theoretical scientists were assigned the task of capturing the effects of large scale detonations through innovative solutions and development of pressure gauges. The in-depth fundamental understanding of physics, combustion and fluid dynamics the researchers utilised resulted in the well-favoured semi-empirical blast predictions for simplistic free-field spherical/hemispherical blasts.\\ A broad amount of literature has been published on free-air characterisation of spherical/hemispherical explosives, with the detonation process and subsequent shock wave formation mechanics being well understood. However, there is yet to be a definitive and robust understanding of how deterministic a shock waves spatial and temporal parameters are for simplistic scenarios. This goes as far as some studies suggesting that semi-empirical tools are not as effective as previously assumed. Often the use of numerical simulations provide reasonable insights to blast loading conditions imparted on structures and scenarios with higher complexities. However, when the validation data used is assumed to exhibit erroneousness, the schemes are no longer characteristically high in fidelity. The lack of quantified variability and confidence in the data which is published, are significant issues for engineers when designing infrastructure that is both robust enough to withstand extreme loading, and not overly conservative that there are cost and material waste implications. This issue is investigated thoroughly within this thesis, highlighting the sensitivity of blast parameters across the scaled distance ranges, and determining their predictability with both numerical simulation and semi-empirical tools. The vast majority of free-field characterisation has been conducted using military grade explosive which exhibit ideal detonation behaviours; meaning the detonation reaction is effectively instantaneous. Ideal explosives, by the theoretical definition, can be categorised by a simplistic instantaneous energy release. In far-field regimes, any explosive with ideal-like compositions and behaviours should be scalable with mass. This assumption is not valid for homemade explosives (HME), such as ANFO (Ammonium Nitrate + Fuel Oil), whose compositions are usually homogenous, resulting in a finite reaction zone length. These can be long enough to cause failures in detonations and exhibit a variety of different energy releases depending on the mass of the charge resulting in HME's having different TNT equivalence values depending on their scale. Early works of ANFO characterisation was done so in the desire to replace TNT, to assess its capability of producing similar yields for a fraction of the manufacturing costs. This meant the hemispherical detonations of ANFO which have led to its overall classification, were done using charges of over 100kg and therefore non-ideal reaction zone effects become negligible in comparison to the overall charge size. Yields presented in this region were consistently measured at around 80\% of a similar TNT detonation and has therefore been incorrectly assumed a rule for ANFO across all mass ranges within published literature.\\ There is a distinct lack of characterisation of non-ideal explosives throughout the mass scales, posing a significant implication for designing structures to withstand the threat of HMEs. With the knowledge that energy is released at a much slower rate when detonating these compositions, the assumption that large scale trials accurately capturing the behaviour of a small charge masses, when scaled down, is not verified. Most HMEs will be hand held devices or, at the very least, backpack size, meaning the threat currently is not predictive with confidence through validated data conducted under well-controlled conditions. Small scale ANFO trials have demonstrated this to be the case within this thesis, with theoretical mechanisms proposed which offering a prediction method of the behaviour of non-ideal detonation across all mass scales. Findings in this PhD thesis will offer a conclusion on whether shock waves in free-field scenarios are deterministic for both ideal and no-ideal explosives, with a particular emphasis on the far-field range. The results presented are developments in the accurate quantification of shock wave loading conditions a structure is subjected to through explosive detonation and should be used by engineers to establish robust, probabilistic but accurate designs

    Beyond a 'space of exception': the multi-scalar politics of megaproject development in Indonesia

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    In many countries, megaprojects have emerged as a prominent development strategy to boost national economic growth. However, due to the diverse historical, institutional, and political backgrounds of various countries, context and empirical evidence play a crucial role in studying megaprojects. This study aims to provide a deeper understanding of Indonesia's rising ‘infrastructure-led development’, specifically by investigating the National Strategic Projects (PSN) agenda under the Jokowi administration. It focuses on the process of state restructuring and the influence of scalar politics on the dynamics of megaproject governance, as well as their repercussions on the delivery of megaprojects. This study argues that the process of spatial and scalar reorganisation and reorientation within megaproject development requires greater consideration. Through a case study of the Jakarta-Bandung high-speed railway (HSR) project, this study looks at how contentious politics takes place within multi-scalar settings and how it challenges megaproject development practice in Indonesia. This study delves deeper into explores the complexities of Sino-Indonesian cooperation to develop megaprojects in Indonesia. With a ‘restrained’ state capitalism approach, the Indonesian government has successfully attracted foreign capital investments in Indonesia, which have been complemented by the increased role of State-Owned Enterprises (SOEs) in developing megaprojects. Furthermore, it can be argued that megaprojects have become a ‘space of exception’, transcending various scales beyond administrative boundaries. Despite being under a decentralised system, megaprojects can circumvent local authorities’ wishes and normal administrative procedures. It is also evident that, as a result of various centralisation efforts, the central government has greater control over the planning and decision-making of megaprojects, while the local governments have little autonomy-exercising power. This study further investigates megaprojects beyond 'spaces of exception' by examining a variety of issues and challenges within megaproject planning and implementation. It is found that exceptionality measures have successfully expedited the development of megaprojects, but there have been adverse effects as a result of omitting necessary procedures and overlooking the local dynamics

    Mapping Critical Practice In A Transdisciplinary Urban Studio

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    Architecture and Planning exist to make positive changes to our environment. Future practitioners in these disciplines will be responsible for how our cities develop and are managed - they will be required to exercise their professional judgement in complex and unpredictable contexts. There is increasing interest in transdisciplinary urbanism, but implementation in academic contexts has to date been relatively limited. This thesis aims to build on these examples, through a detailed account of one academic design studio which operates across architecture and urban planning; in doing so it aims to make the case for transdisciplinary, problem and place-based studio teaching. The study considers how a transdisciplinary studio environment supported students to develop a critical approach to practice through collaborative discourse. It looked at studio methods/practices; what it means to practice ‘critically’ in the context of design; and the role ‘going public’ by sharing ideas in public fora might play in developing critical positions. The study was undertaken in collaboration with nine students, a single cohort undertaking the final year of a hybrid master’s qualification in Architecture with Urban Planning. It adopts socio-material and spatial approaches to follow how the studio environment and the students’ emerging interdisciplinary identities shaped both their individual and their shared work. It mapped how their approach to their practice evolved through observations, interviews, and informal conversations, and through their drawings, models and journals. In carrying out these observations, and their analysis, I have returned to drawing methods common in architecture. This allowed me to explore and record aspects of studio practice which might otherwise be missed and revealed the importance of visual and spatial thinking to my own practice. Observations revealed how material spaces, tools and artefacts acted to structure social relations in the studio, and how these relations shaped individual approaches to critical practice

    Psychosis and voice-hearing: exploring dissociative processes and factors associated with compliance with commanding voices

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    Voice-hearing (VH) is prevalent for people with a psychiatric diagnosis of psychosis. Previous research has found that some individuals hear voices that are commanding in nature. However, the factors linked to whether a person complies, or does not comply, with commands are not well understood. Therefore, section one of this thesis aimed to review literature examining variables thought to be related to compliance with commanding voices. A systematic literature review was completed, where three online databases were searched for relevant studies. In total, 14 papers were included, which considered a range of variables. The quality of included studies was assessed, which highlighted issues with both reliability and validity. Due to methodological differences between studies, it was difficult to directly compare studies and draw firm conclusions. However, there was some evidence that compliance was related to voice-related variables, including recognising the voice, higher ratings of perceived voice power, the presence of consistent unusual beliefs and voice-hearer characteristics, including increased illness severity and stronger beliefs about future compliance. The current review provides initial information on several variables thought to be related to compliance with commanding voices. However, the current evidence is limited and further research, of high quality, is required to further inform current understanding and clinical practice. It is recommended that clinicians ask clients about their voice-hearing experiences and assess variables associated with compliance (e.g., the presence of consistent unusual beliefs) to support risk assessment and management and inform treatment targets. It is also recommended that psychological interventions address issues of compliance, for example by reducing perceived voice power. The second section of this thesis consists of the empirical project. This online study aimed to compare participants with psychosis and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on factors considered to be related to VH, including trauma and dissociation. The relationship between peritraumatic dissociation and VH was also explored. Although peritraumatic dissociation has been linked to trauma-related conditions, including PTSD, it has not been examined in psychosis. A total of 81 adults participated in this project. Participants were recruited to one of three groups (27 per group) based on whether they had a diagnosis of psychosis, PTSD, or no current mental health diagnosis (excluding anxiety or depression). Recruitment was attempted via local NHS services and social media. However, all participants were recruited through social media (e.g. Facebook). Participants were given a link to the study, where they answered demographic questions and completed questionnaires measuring childhood trauma, dissociation and peritraumatic dissociation. Participants also completed an online signal detection test to support data collection for a separate study. The psychosis and PTSD groups reported increased childhood trauma, dissociation and peritraumatic dissociation. VH was mediated through childhood trauma, peritraumatic dissociation and dissociation. The findings provide initial evidence that peritraumatic dissociation is relevant to psychosis as well as PTSD. However, due to limitations of this exploratory study, further research using larger samples and clinical populations is required. It is recommended that clinicians routinely screen trauma, dissociation and peritraumatic dissociation in patients with psychosis and PTSD

    Analysis of the display and localisation of surface protein Clumping Factor A of Staphylococcus aureus

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    Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen responsible for infections of varying severity, globally. It is a major health concern due to the presence of antibiotic-resistant strains such as methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), a “superbug” which is multidrug resistant. One mechanism by which S. aureus successfully colonises and infects its host is through the production of virulence factors which have roles such as host tissue adherence, toxicity, and immune cell evasion. S. aureus is a Gram-positive bacterium meaning it has a thick outer cell wall primarily made up of peptidoglycan. The cell wall is decorated with an array of surface proteins, including those classified as virulence factors. One major group of virulence factors are cell wall-associated proteins which can be covalently-bound to the cell wall via sortase, an enzyme which catalyses the interaction between the C-terminus of the peptide and peptidoglycan. This study attempted to further understand the mechanisms by which surface proteins come to be displayed on the cell wall of S. aureus, focussing on the secretion of the protein Clumping Factor A (ClfA). ClfA has a conserved motif as part of its N-terminal signal peptide (YSIRK-GXXS) which has previously been shown to interact with lipoteichoic synthesis events which primarily occur at the septum during cell division. My work employed a combination of bioinformatic analysis, genetic manipulation techniques, and microscopy approaches to understand the mechanisms behind ClfA secretion and visualise the location of ClfA display with respect to the YSIRK-GXXS motif and cell wall division machinery. As well as monitoring secretion in wild-type S. aureus, how protein secretion is affected by methicillin-treatment in MRSA was investigated. This revealed antibiotic treatment of MRSA to alter ClfA display. My work contributes to the understanding of surface protein display and how this may be useful in elucidating important mechanisms of host-pathogen interaction


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