Location of Repository

Gay men and suicidality : an exploration of the significant biographical experiences fore-grounded during childhood, adolescence and early adulthood of some gay men who have engaged in suicidality

By Susan Lindsay McAndrew

Abstract

International epidemiological studies note that gay men are 4 times more likely to report a serious suicide attempt than their heterosexual counterparts. Data on completed suicides, usually derived from mortality statistics, misrepresent the rate of suicides amongst homosexual populations. However, an increasing number of studies comparing representative samples of gay, lesbian and bisexual youths with heterosexual controls, report increased rates of mental health problems and subsequent suicide among the homosexual population. Whilst current healthcare policy in England is concerned with suicides among young people, the importance of research findings relating to gay people and their mental health needs are often not acknowledged. Additionally, addressing the problem through a public health agenda, the juxtaposition of trying to reduce the rate of suicide among young gay men in a social climate of heterosexism often compounds the negative mental health consequences for this group of people. This thesis explores possible psychosocial experiences that might have contributed to the suicidality of four gay men. A qualitative approach, using single case studies, was used to gain an in-depth understanding of the individual's experience. This methodology was psychoanalytically informed, and used free association narrative interviewing as a means of data collection. Initial data analysis involved interpretation of the Gestalt of each of the case studies. Subsequent analysis explored the shared experiences that are to be found in each of the individual narratives. Thematically, these are described as 'knowing and not knowing', 'the centrality of the father-son relationship' 'the loneliness of 'outsiderness', 'leading a double life' and 'crime and punishment'. The exploration of the significance of the life, experiences these themes illustrated revealed why some gay men might not only experience long term mental health problems but also engage in suicidality. Individually and collectively the analyses provide important insights for health professionals becoming more attuned to specific aspects of a gay man's story and thus, as a consequence, providing sensitive mental health care, at a primary, secondary and tertiary level, to those who have a gay sexual orientation

Publisher: Institute of Psychological Sciences (Leeds)
Year: 2008
OAI identifier: oai:etheses.whiterose.ac.uk:342

Suggested articles

Preview

Citations

  1. (2001). 1 was terrified of growing up different": exploring gay men's accounts of growing-up in a heterosexist society. doi
  2. (1991). 4 Special Scar. - The experiences ofpeople bereaved by suicide. doi
  3. (1986). A critical examination of stage theories of lesbian identity development. doi
  4. (1975). A narcissistic defense against affects and the illusion of self-sufficiency.
  5. (1990). A new look at the theory of Melanie Klein.
  6. (2002). A New Reading of the Origins of Object-Relations Theory. doi
  7. (2003). A practical guide for researchers in health and social sciences. Oxford: Blackwell Science.
  8. (1995). A psychoanalytic theory of drug addition: Unconscious fantasies of homosexuality, compulsions and masturbation within the context of traurnatogenic processes.
  9. (1992). A Very Straight Gay: Masculinity, Homosexual Experience, And The Dynamic Gender. doi
  10. (1973). Abandoning Method London: doi
  11. (1990). Acts ofMeaning. Cambridge MA:
  12. (1996). Adolescent suicide ideation and attempts: risk factors and clinical implications. doi
  13. (1996). Advances in the psychoanalytic theory and therapy of male homosexuali4,.
  14. (1991). Affect integration in psychoanalysis: A clinical approach to self-destructive behaviour.
  15. (1970). Against method: Outline of an anarchistic theory of knowledge, doi
  16. (1995). Against Nature. - Essays on history, sexuality and identity London: River
  17. (1993). AIDS-related stigma and homophobia: Implications for nurse education. doi
  18. (1996). An empirical study of the beliefs of psychoanalysts about scientific and clinical dimensions of male homosexual itv. doi
  19. (1995). An Introduction to Social Construction ism. doi
  20. (2004). Analysing interpretation and reinterpreting analysis: exploring the logic of critical reflection. doi
  21. (1999). Annotation: Mood Disorder in Suicidal Children and Adolescents: Recent Developments. doi
  22. (1996). Barriers to accessibility for lesbians and gay youth needing addictive services. Youth and Society, doi
  23. (2001). Bedwetting, behaviour and self-esteem: A review of the literature. doi
  24. (1989). Being Homosexual. - Gay men and their development.
  25. (1983). Beyond objectivism and relativism. - Science, hermeneutics, and praxis. doi
  26. (1920). Beyond the Pleasure Principle. doi
  27. (2007). Bordering on insanity: Mis Nomer, reviewing the case of the condemned women. Journal o Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, doi
  28. (2003). Borderline personality disorder and the search for meaning: an attachment perspective. doi
  29. (1995). Breaking the links between homosexuality and mental illness. MIND discussion document.
  30. (1999). British psychiatry and homosexuality. doi
  31. (1994). Bullying. - Don't suffer in silence. An anti-bullying packfor schools.
  32. (1994). Challenging Lesbian and Gay Inequalities in Education. Buckingham:
  33. (1997). Changing models of the mind In Bronstein, C. (ed) Klefflian theoly. A contemporary perspective.
  34. (1993). Changing our minds. - Lesbianfeminism andpSychology. tn
  35. (1995). Childhood sex-typed behaviour and sexual orientation: A conceptual analysis and quantitative review. doi
  36. (1930). Civilization and its Discontents. doi
  37. (1983). Classification of counter-transference for utilization in supervision.
  38. (2000). Clinical supervision as an emancipatory process: avoiding inappropriate intent. doi
  39. (1988). Coming out to mom and dad: A study of gay males and their relationships with their parents. doi
  40. (2006). Commitment and Healing. - Gay Men and the needfor Romantic Love.
  41. (1998). Counselling and Education doi
  42. (1996). Counselling issues with gay and lesbian adolescents.
  43. (1953). Counter-transference and counter- identification. doi
  44. (1992). Cultural Studies as Critical Theory. doi
  45. (1999). Customs and Contracting within the UK General Practitioner Fund Holding Scheme. Unpublished PhD Thesis.
  46. (2005). Cutting Across Boundaries: A case studý' using feminine praxis to understand self harm. doi
  47. (2003). Deconstructing reflexivity. In doi
  48. (2000). Deliberate self harm. doi
  49. (2001). Describing the Bricolage: Conceptualizing a New Rigor in Qualitative Research. doi
  50. (1987). Developmental issues and their resolution for gay and lesbian adolescence. doi
  51. (1994). Dialectic of enlightenment. doi
  52. (1968). Dis-identifying from mother: Its special importance for the boy.
  53. (2001). Doing qualitative research differently: free association, narrative and the interview method. Book Reviem,, doi
  54. (2000). doing qualitative research differently. - ftee association, narrative and the interview method London:
  55. (1955). Dream psychology and the analytic situation.
  56. (1995). Early psychosocial risks for adolescent suicide ideation and attempts. doi
  57. (1963). Elelments ofPsycho-Analysis.
  58. (2000). Elevated Rates of Suicide Behaviour in Gay, doi
  59. (1994). Evaluation criteria and critique of qualitative research studies.
  60. (2005). Exploring the implications for health professionals of men coming out as gay in healthcare settings. doi
  61. (1999). Exploring the links between interpersonal trust and the reason underlying gay and bisexual males' disclosure of their sexual orientation to their mothers. doi
  62. (1989). Female habitual self mutilators. doi
  63. (1994). Feminist Research. doi
  64. (1997). ff'ithout prejudice. - Mind lesbian, gqy and bisexual mental health mi, areness research.
  65. (1995). Free association and Analytic Neutrality: The Basic Structure of the Psychoanalytic Situation. doi
  66. (2002). From Knowledge to Competence: reflections on theoretical work. doi
  67. (1999). Gay affin-native psychotherapy: A phenomenological Study.
  68. (2004). Gay and Lesbian Identities and mental Health. doi
  69. (1996). Gay and Lesbian Identity Development: A Social Identity Perspective. doi
  70. (1995). Gay and Lesbian Self-Identification: A response to Rotheram-Borus and Fernandez. Suicide and Life Threatening Behaviour,
  71. (2002). Gay but not queer: Towards a post-queer study of sexuality. Theory and Society,
  72. (2003). Gay men's experiences of therapy. doi
  73. (1992). Gender Characteristics and Adjustment: A longitudinal study. doi
  74. (2001). Gender differences in adolescents and young adults xvith suicide beha,,,, 'iour.. doi
  75. (2000). Gender differences in risk factors for suicide in Denmark. doi
  76. (1979). Generalising from single case studies.
  77. (1996). Geography of Childhood Sexual Abuse: Women's Narritives of Their Childhood Environments. doi
  78. (1997). Graduate students' training experiences with gay, lesbian and bisexual issues. Paper presented at 104 Ih Annual Convention ofAmerican Psychological Association,
  79. (2003). Growing-Up Hidden: Notes on understanding male homosexuality.
  80. (2001). Heterosexism and Homophobia in Scottish school sex education: exploring the nature of the problem. doi
  81. (2000). Heterosexuals' Use of 'Fag' and 'Queer' to Deride One Another: A contributor to heterosexism and stigma. doi
  82. (1994). Homophobia amongst doctors. doi
  83. (1993). Homophobia and attitudes towards gay men and lesbians by psychiatric nurses. Archives ofpsychiatric Nursing, doi
  84. (2005). Homophobia in Nursing: A Concept Analysis. doi
  85. (1991). Homosexual identity Coming out and other developmental events. doi
  86. (1994). Homosexual ity -New England
  87. (2007). Homosexuality and Its Vicissitudes. In doi
  88. (2001). Homosexuality: Clinical and technical issues.
  89. (1984). How does anaývsis cure? Chicago:
  90. (1989). Human Sexuality and its problems. Churchil Livingstone. doi
  91. (2004). Ignoring the evidence. dictating the practice: sexual orientation, suicidality and the dichotomy of the mental health nurse. doi
  92. (1994). Internalised homophobia. - Conceptual and empirical issues in measurement.
  93. (1999). Interpersonal communication and psychology for Health Care Professionals: theory andpractice.
  94. (2005). Interpretation and over- interpretation: disputing the meaning of texts. doi
  95. (1995). Interpreting Experience. doi
  96. (1995). Introduction to Psychoanalysis. doi
  97. (1999). Is sexual orientation related to mental health problems and suicidality in young people? doi
  98. (1989). Jocasta's Children. - The imprint of the mother. doi
  99. (1997). Jockeying for position: The construction of masculine identities. doi
  100. (2006). Judgements without rules: towards a postmodern ironist concept of research validity. doi
  101. (2003). Lacan. Ecrits. -a selection. (Translated by Alan Sheridan). doi
  102. (2003). Learning at the Edges between Knowing and Not-knowing: 'Translating' Bion. In
  103. (1962). Learningftom Experience.
  104. (1910). Leonardo da Vinci and a memory of his childhood doi
  105. (2002). Lesbian and gay affirmative psychotherapy. - Defining the domain.
  106. (1989). Lesbian and gay youth in England. doi
  107. (1996). Lesbian, gay and bisexual development during adolescence and young adulthood. doi
  108. (1998). Lesbian, gaý, and bisexual youth and their families: disclosure of sexual orientation and its consequences. doi
  109. (2000). Lifetime prevalence of suicide symptoms and affective disorders among men reporting same-sex sexual partners: Results from the NHANES 111. doi
  110. (1995). Like Subjects, Love Objects. - essays on recognition and sexual difference. New Haven: doi
  111. (2004). Looking Back. -Stepping Forward In
  112. (1988). Love, Guilt and Reparation.
  113. (2004). Making sense of interviewee-interviewer dynamics in narratives about violence in intimate relationships. doi
  114. (2000). Making Sexual History. doi
  115. (1988). Male homosexualio,,. - A contemporary psychoanalytic perspective. New Haven CT:
  116. (2001). Management of patients who deliberately harm themselves. doi
  117. (1978). Manual of General Health Questionnaire.
  118. (2003). Mental health and social wellbeing of gay men lesbians and bisexuals in England and Wales. London: Mind Report.
  119. (1994). Mental Space.
  120. (1995). Minority stress and mental health in gay men. doi
  121. (1917). Mourning and Melancholia. doi
  122. (1992). My own special creation'? The construction of gay identiýjý. In
  123. (1993). Narrative Analysis. Newbury Park Calif. doi
  124. (2006). Narrative as construction and discursive resource. doi
  125. (2002). Narrative in psychotherapy theory, practice, and research: a critical review. doi
  126. (1988). Narrative knowing and the Human Sciences. doi
  127. (2003). Narrative psychology, trauma, and the study of self/identity. Theoný and Psychology, doi
  128. (2000). nd ed). Thousand Oaks, doi
  129. (1992). Ne-vi, right discourses on race and sexuality. Cambridge:
  130. (1965). Notes on counter-transference.
  131. (1987). Nursing Research. - Principles, Process and Issues.
  132. (2004). Nursing, Nurse Education and Professionalisation in a Contemporary Context.
  133. (1988). Objectivity and reliability in qualitative analysis: Realist, contextualist and radical constructionist epistemologies. doi
  134. (1982). On Death and Dving.
  135. (1995). On the analytic therapy of homosexual men. In doi
  136. (1965). On The Shoulders of Giants. - A Shandean Postscript, doi
  137. (2005). On to the Next Level: Continuing the Conceptual ization of the Bricolage. doi
  138. (1972). Out of the Closets: the sociology of Homosexual Liberation. Englewood Cliffs:
  139. (2008). Painting the landscape of emotionality: colouring in the emotional gaps between the theory and practice of mental health nursing. doi
  140. (2001). Playing it safe: addressing the emotional and physical health of lesbian and gay pupils in the U. doi
  141. (1998). Positioning and interpretive repertoires: Conversation analysis and poststructuralism in dialogue. doi
  142. (2001). Postmodernism for healthcare workers in 13 easy steps. doi
  143. (1985). Presentation (? f Gender.
  144. (2002). Presentation bý, youth to attend Auckland Emergency Department following attempted suicide. doi
  145. (2003). Press Release: High rates of considering suicide and history of attempted suicide found in gay men and lesbians.
  146. (1996). Prevention of Suicide. - Guidelines for the formulation and Implementation qf National Strategies.
  147. (2003). Primary care mental health: a new dawn.
  148. (2004). Problematising gender and sexual identity. Paper presented at Cardiff School of Social Sciences,
  149. (1984). Problems of Dostoevski's Poetics. Edited and translated by C. Emerson Manchester:
  150. (1957). Problems of Human Behaviour andPleasure.
  151. (2000). Psychiatric aspects of suicidal behaviour. - Substance Abuse. doi
  152. (1993). Psychic Retreats. London: Routledge. 2). The art of loving and the therapeutic relationship.
  153. (2001). Psychoanalysis and homosexuality: do we need a theory? doi
  154. (2006). Psychoanalysis and qualitative psychology: Complimentary or contradictory paradigms. doi
  155. (1989). Psychoanalysis and racism. doi
  156. (1994). Psychoanalysis on Masculinity. In doi
  157. (1989). Psychoanalytic Aspects of Fieldwork. doi
  158. (2004). Psychoanalytic attitudes towards homosexuality. doi
  159. (1998). Psychoanaývtic therapy and the gqv man.
  160. (1992). Psychological well-being and gay identity. - Some suggestions for promoting mental health among gay men.
  161. (1949). Psychosexual development in health and disease.
  162. (1982). Psychotherapeutic implications of intemalised homophobia in gay men.
  163. (1994). Qualitative Methods in Psychology. - A research guide, doi
  164. (2005). Qualitative psychology. - Introducing radical research.
  165. (1994). Qualitative Research. doi
  166. (1996). Qualitative Researching. doi
  167. (1979). Qualitative sociologv: A method to madness.
  168. (1996). Queer BASHING. - a National Suney of Hate Crimes Against Lesbian and Gal,
  169. (2003). Re-Establishing Psychodynamic Theory As Foundational Knowledge For Psych iatric/M ental Health Nursing. Issues doi
  170. (2001). Relationship of sexual orientation to substance use. suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and other factors in a population of homeless adolescents. doi
  171. (1957). Report of the Committee on Homosexual Offences and Prostitution. London. HMSO World Health Organisation,
  172. (1986). Research Interviewing. - Context and Narrative. doi
  173. (2001). Risk of psychiatric disorders among individuals reporting same-sex sexual partners in the National Co-morbidity Survey.
  174. (2004). Same-sex attraction in a birth cohort: prevalence and persistence in early adulthood. doi
  175. (1986). San Diego suicide study: A comparison of gay to straight males. Suicide and Life Threatening
  176. (1964). Sanity, Madness and the Family. doi
  177. (1998). Schooling Sexualities. doi
  178. (1988). Science the Very Idea. doi
  179. (1996). Self Harm. - Perspectives ftom personal experience. London: Survivors Speak Out.
  180. (1985). Sex Therapy. - A practical guide. doi
  181. (2003). Sex Variations in the Disclosure to Parents of Same-Sex Attractions. doi
  182. (1897). Sexual Inversion. In doi
  183. (1987). Sexual orientation and boyhood gender comformitv. Archives of sexual behaviour, doi
  184. (1995). Sexual Orientation and Developmental Challenges Experienced by Gay and lesbian Youths. Suicide and Life Threatening Behaviour,
  185. (1999). Sexual orientation and mental health: data from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS). Poster presented at Stoney Brook,
  186. (1999). Sexual orientation and risk of suicide attempt among a representative sample of youth. Archive of Paediatric Adolescent Medicine, doi
  187. (2003). Sexual Orientation and Self Harm in Men and Women. doi
  188. (1992). Sexual Orientation. In
  189. (1981). Sexual Preference. Bloomington: Indiana Press.
  190. (1998). Shadow of the other. - Intersubjectiviry and gender in psychoanalysis.
  191. (1999). Splitting Difference: Psychoanalysis, Hatred and Exclusion. doi
  192. (2006). Splitting the difference: the heroes and villains of mental health policy and nursing practice. doi
  193. (1998). Strategies of qualitative inquity.
  194. (1988). Strong mothers, weak wives. London: Universitý, doi
  195. (1991). Student nurse attitudes towards AlDs. Nurse Education Today, doi
  196. (2000). Suicidal behaviour in gay, lesbian and bisexual youth: It's an international problem that is associated with homophobic legislation. doi
  197. (2005). Suicidal Masculinities. doi
  198. (1987). Suicide among homosexual adolescents. doi
  199. (2001). Suicide and gay/lesbian/bi sexual youth: Implications for clinicians. Journal ofAdolescence, doi
  200. (2002). Suicide and prostitution among street youth: a qualitative analysis.
  201. (1995). Suicide and sexual orientation: a critical summary of recent research and direction for future research. Suicide Life Threatening Behaviour, 25 (suppl.
  202. (1999). Suicide and Sexual Orientation: Nearing the End of a Controversy? doi
  203. (1997). Suicide behaviour in homosexual and bisexual males. doi
  204. (2000). Supervision in the helping professions. Buckinghamshire:
  205. (2003). Taking a stand: Using psychoanalysis to explore the positioning of subjects in discourse. doi
  206. (1988). The Bonds of Love. Psychoanalysis, feminism, and the problems of domination. doi
  207. (1992). The Claustrum. - An investigation of Claustrophobic Phenomena.
  208. (1996). The Clinical Thinking of Wiýýed Bion.
  209. (1989). The coroner, the inquest and the verdict of suicide. Inner urban and national suicide rates: A simple comparative study. Medicine, Science and LMI',
  210. (1977). The death of the author.
  211. (2006). The Development of Constructivist Grounded Theory. doi
  212. (1973). The Diagnostic and Statistical doi
  213. (1969). The divided seýf
  214. (1999). The Emerging Gay Adolescent. doi
  215. (1952). The emotional position of the analyst in the psycho-analytic situation.
  216. (1996). The epidemiology of problem drinking in gav men and lesbians: a critical I Z-- I reN, ieN\. Psychological Revieiv.
  217. (2001). The Expert Patient. - A Nell) Approach to Chronic Disease Managementfor the 21" Century.
  218. (1989). The formation of homosexual identities. doi
  219. (1979). The Four Fundamental Concepts of Psychoanalysis. (Translated by Alan Sheridan).
  220. (1998). The functions of self mutilation. doi
  221. The health needs of gay men in Lothian. - A qualitative study.
  222. (2004). The heart of the art: emotional intelligence in nurse education. doi
  223. (1992). The individual self concept: A critical analysis of social constructionist writing on individualism.
  224. (2003). The International Psychoanalytical Association and Homosexuality. doi
  225. (1965). The Maturational Processes and the Facilitating Environment.
  226. (2000). The Men and the Boys. Cambridge: Polity Cooper, doi
  227. (1998). The mental health experiences of gay men: a research study exploring In gay men's mental health needs. doi
  228. (1996). The narrative interview. '
  229. (1992). The Oedipus situation and the Depressive Position. In
  230. (1975). The origins of transference.
  231. (2004). The place of the unconscious in mental health nursincy. doi
  232. (1987). The Politics of Psychoanalysis. doi
  233. (1991). The Power of Counter-transference. - Innovations in Analytic Technique.
  234. (2003). The primacy of experience
  235. (1988). The psychoanalytic theory of male homosexualiýv.
  236. (2001). The quest for modem manhood: masculine stereotypes, peer culture and the social significance of homophobia. doi
  237. (1985). The real seýf- a developmental se4f and object-relations approach. United Kingdom:
  238. (2003). The reflexive journey: mapping multiple routes. doi
  239. (2003). The relationship between mood and sexuality in gay men.
  240. (1998). The relationship between suicide risk and sexual orientation: Results of a population based study. doi
  241. (2002). The role of role avoidance. doi
  242. (1997). The science behind feminist research methods. doi
  243. (2005). The shackles of abuse: unprepared to work at the edges of reason. doi
  244. (2004). The shaping of masculinity: revisioning boys turning away from their mothers to construct male gender identity. doi
  245. (1985). The Theory and Practice of Group Psychoterapy.
  246. (1960). The theory of the parent-infant relationship.
  247. (1985). The Use qf Pleasure. -
  248. (1996). The victimisation of gay teenagers in schools: homophobia in education. doi
  249. (1975). The widening gyre: transformations of the omnipotent quest during adolescence.
  250. (1990). Thinking Socialogicalýv.
  251. (1998). Toward a More Clinically Valid Approach to Therapy Research. doi
  252. (1999). Towards a non-regulative practice.
  253. (2003). Towards a psyche for psychiatry. Australian and new doi
  254. (2003). Truth andfteedom in psychoanaývsis.
  255. (1998). Types of case study work: A conceptual framework for case-based research. doi
  256. (2007). Understanding Suicide and Promoti . ng Survival in LGBT communities. London: Project for Advice, Counselling and Education
  257. (1992). Understanding Women.
  258. (2002). Unresolved issues in the psychoanalytic theory of homosexuality and bisexuality. doi
  259. (1995). Using the concepts of transference and countertransference in the consultation process. doi
  260. (1994). Verbal and physical abuse as stressors in the lives of lesbian, gay male and bisexual youths: Associations with school problems, running away, substance abuse, prostitution, and suicide. doi
  261. (1998). Victimization, use of violence and druc, use at school among male adolescents who engage in same-sex sexual behaviour. doi
  262. (1992). What can be the relevance of the psychiatric nurse to the life of a person who is mentally ill? doi
  263. (1999). What researchers can learn from psychotherapists.
  264. (2004). Young People, Gender and Suicide Prevention. - help-seeking in 17-18 year old men and women. Cardiff School of Social Sciences, Report for Wales Office of Research and Development in Health and Social Care.
  265. (2005). Young People, Gender and Suicide. doi

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.