Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

Sustainability entrepreneurship : design principles, processes, and paradigms

By Bradley D. Parrish


Sustainability entrepreneurship is the process of creating new enterprises that survive and thrive by contributing to human wellbeing and the functioning of ecological\ud systems. This study is an investigation of the principles, processes, and paradigms of successful sustainability entrepreneurship.\ud \ud Based on a critical realist perspective, a multiple, embedded case study strategy was used to explore the unique design histories of successful sustainabilitydriven\ud enterprises in four different regions and industries - one each in Europe, North America, East Africa, and Asia-Pacific, and in the marketing and finance, hospitality, training, and export-import-wholesaling sectors. Qualitative data consisting of interviews, documents, and observations from site visits were collected and analysed using combined comparative and narrative analyses. These methods enabled the actor logics that guided the unfolding enterprise design process to be identified and described. Institutional theory was used to educe the implications of\ud these logics for the character and performance of emerging enterprises.\ud \ud The first of three principal findings of this study is a cognitive model of sustainability entrepreneurship that specifies five design principles that guide problem\ud solving. The second principal finding is a process model of sustainability entrepreneurship that demonstrates the way these design principles and the underpinning values become embedded in the enterprises' formal and informal structures, allowing the enterprises to maintain their intended purposes and character while necessarily\ud evolving to ensure survival into the future. The third principal outcome is the proposition that this distinct approach to enterprise design represents the emergence\ud of a new organising paradigm that eschews the dualistic divide between'opportunistic' business and 'altruistic' charity in favour of a new logic based on the coproduction\ud of multiple benefit streams through the perpetuation of human and natural resource quality

Publisher: School of Earth and Environment (Leeds)
Year: 2007
OAI identifier:

Suggested articles


  1. (2006). A Future for Organization Theory: Living in and Living with Changing Organizations. doi
  2. (1992). A Model of Entrepreneurial Socialization and Organization Formation. Entrepreneurship Theory and
  3. (2004). A multi-dimensional view of entrepreneurship: Towards a research agenda on organization emergence. doi
  4. (1997). A Psychological Typology of Successful Entrepreneurs.
  5. (1998). A Qualitative Methodology for Process Studies of Entrepreneurship.
  6. (1993). A Second Environmental Science: Human-Environment Interactions. doi
  7. (1991). A Society of Organizations. doi
  8. (1957). Administrative Behavior: A Study of Decision-making Process in Administrative Organization. doi
  9. (1933). Adventures of Ideas. doi
  10. (2005). Alternative Approaches for Studying Orpnizational Change.
  11. (2002). An Entrepreneur Commercialises Conservation. doi
  12. (1982). An Evolutionary Theory of Economic Change.
  13. (2002). Assessing Ecopreneurship in the Context of a Developing Country. doi
  14. (1988). Basic Assumptions Themes in Organizations. doi
  15. (1998). Basics of Qualitative Research: Techniques and Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory. Thousand Oaks, doi
  16. (1996). Becoming Sustainable: Changing the Way We Think. In: Pirages D, editor. Building Sustainable Societies: A Blueprint for a Post-Industrial World.
  17. (1998). Beyond Terms of Trade: Convergence/ Divergence and Creative/Uncreative Destruction. Zagreb Internatinoal Review of Economics and Business l(l): 13-25.1 Springett D.
  18. (1989). Blueprint for a Green Economy. doi
  19. (1988). Building Successful Partnerships.
  20. (1998). Building The Flexible Firm: How To Remain Competitive. doi
  21. (1939). Business Cycles: A theoretical, historical, and statistical analysis of the capitalist process (2 Vols. doi
  22. (1993). Calculativeness, Trust, and Economic Organization. doi
  23. (2006). Can Businesses Move Beyond Efficiency? The Shift Toward Effectiveness and Equity doi
  24. (2003). Can Businesses Move Beyond Efficiency? The Shift toward Effectiveness and Equity in the Corporate Sustainability Debate; doi
  25. (1994). Can Humankind Change the Economic Myth? Paradigm Shifts Necessary for Ecologically Sustainable Business. doi
  26. (2004). Can Sustainable Entrepreneurs Become the True Wealth Generators of the Future? Business Strategy and the Environment Conference.
  27. (2000). Case Studies. In:
  28. (2003). Case Study Research: Design and Methods. Thousand Oaks,
  29. (2001). Causation and Effectuation: Toward a Theoretical Shift from Economic Inevitability to Entrepreneurial Contingency. doi
  30. (1991). Chumbe Island P18 [Plan] Chumbe Island Initial Feasibility Study.
  31. (1997). Chumbe Island P20 [Letter] Collection of letters addressed to a 1996 17 Zanzibari government ministries regarding the policy environment for CHICOP. Prepared by Sibylle Riedmiller.
  32. (2000). Chumbe Island P24 [Forum post] Incentives for non-consumptive 28 Apr. 2 use as alternative to heavy taxation. Prepared
  33. (2000). Chumbe Island P25 (Press release] British Airways Tourism for 28 May 3 Tommorrow: Global Award Winner.
  34. (2004). Chumbe Island P34 [Report] Terrestrial Science Update. Prepared
  35. (2004). Chumbe Island P35 [Report] Marine Science Update. Prepared by
  36. Chumbe Island P36 [Article] How can the private sector benefit 2004 4 from investing in marine conservation?. Includes income & occupancy rates 1998-2003. Prepared by Sibylle Riedmiller.
  37. (2005). Chumbe Island P38 [Paper] Environmental Education Case Study.
  38. Churnbe Island P30 [Statistics] Summary of poacher trends at 2003 2 Chumbe 1994-2002 based on ranger reports.
  39. (1999). Coevolution of Firm Absorptive Capacity and Knowledge Environment: Organizational Forms and Combinative Capabilities. doi
  40. (1993). Cognition in Organizational Analysis: Who's Minding the Store? doi
  41. (1984). Coming to a New Awareness of Organizatinoal Culture.
  42. (1972). Conference on the Human Environment. doi
  43. (2004). Contest for 31 Aug. 10 Socially Responsible Tourism. Includes
  44. (2002). Corporate Social Responsibility: The WBCSD's Journey. Geneva: World Business Council for Sustainable Development.
  45. (1998). Critical Realism and Historical Sociology. A Review Article. doi
  46. (1984). Design for the Real World: Human Ecology and Social Change.
  47. (2006). Designed Emergence as a Path to Enterprise Sustainability.
  48. (2007). Designing the Sustainable Enterprise. doi
  49. (1994). Development Betrayed, The End of Progress and a Coevolutionary Revisioning of the Future. doi
  50. (2006). Does Trust Improve Business Performance? In:
  51. (1997). Ecology: A Bridge Between Science and Society. doi
  52. Effectual Reasoning in Entrepreneurial Decision Making: Existence and Bounds; 2001b; doi
  53. (1995). Enhancing Entrepreneurial Expertise: Experiential Pedagogy and the New Venture Expert Script. Simulation and Gaming doi
  54. (2005). Entrepreneurial Logics for a Technology of Foolishness. doi
  55. (1995). Entrepreneurial Processes as Virtuous and Vicious Spirals in a Changing Opportunity Structure: A Paradoxical Perpspective. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice
  56. (2003). Entrepreneurship as a Science of the Artificial. doi
  57. (2002). Entrepreneurship as Economics with Imagination. doi
  58. (2006). Entrepreneurship as the Nexus of Individual and Opportunity: A Structuration View. doi
  59. (2000). Environmental Management and the Small Firm: An International Comparison. doi
  60. (1988). Environmental Structure and Theories of Strategic Choice. doi
  61. (2004). Event- and outcome-driven explanations of entrepreneurship. doi
  62. (1982). Explaining Organizational Behavior. doi
  63. (1996). Explaining Variation in Rates of Entrepreneurship in the United States: 1899-1988. doi
  64. (2007). Exploring the Determinants of Organizational Emergence: A Legitimacy Perspective.
  65. (2005). Exploring the Financial Value of a Reputation for Corporate Social Responsibility During a Time of Crisis. doi
  66. (1999). Fifty Major Economists. doi
  67. for Smithsonian magazine/Tourism Cares for
  68. (1948). Foundations of the Theory of Organizations. doi
  69. Free Press. 276 Sustuinability Entrepreneurship:
  70. (1997). From Inductive to Iterative Grounded Theory: Zipping the Gap Between Process Theory and Process Data. doi
  71. (2006). From Organization Design to Organization Designing. doi
  72. (2006). From Poles toWholes: Facilita"g an Integrated Approach to Sustainable Entrepreneurship. World Review of Entrepreneurship,
  73. Futures Studies: Science or Art? doi
  74. (1968). Goal Displacement and the Intangibility of Organizational Goals. doi
  75. (1998). Grassroots Ecopreneurs: Change Agents for a Sustainable Society. doi
  76. (1967). Hierarchical Control and Optimum Firm Size. doi
  77. (2001). Human-Modified Ecosystems and Future Evolution. doi
  78. (1977). I'he Role of Institutionalization in Cultural Persistence. doi
  79. (1986). Images of Organization. doi
  80. (1997). Images of Organization. Thousand Oaks,
  81. (2006). Immaturity: The Constraining of Entrepreneurship. doi
  82. (1987). Improving New Venture Performance: The Role of Strategy, Industry Structure, and the Entrepreneur. doi
  83. (2001). In-Person Versus Telephone Interviewing. doi
  84. (1970). Industrial Organisation: Behaviour and Control. London:
  85. (1980). Influence of Organizational Learning Styles on Early Development. In:
  86. (2000). Institutional Change and Healthcare Organizations: From Professional Dominance to Managed Care. Chicago: doi
  87. (1977). Institutionalized Organizations: Formal Structure as Myth and Ceremony. doi
  88. (1998). Institutions and Incentives for Biodiversity Conservation.
  89. (2001). Institutions and Organizations. Thousand Oaks, doi
  90. (1997). Interpretation in Organizations: Sensemaking and Strategy. doi
  91. (1996). Introduction to the Philosophy of Social Research.
  92. (1992). Introduction: Cases of "What is a case? "
  93. (1947). Introduction. In: doi
  94. (2006). Investigating Social Entrepreneurship: A Multidimensional Model. doi
  95. (1995). Is the independent entrepreneurial firm a valuable organizational form? doi
  96. (1957). Leadership in Administration: A Sociological Interpretation. doi
  97. (1994). Learning from Strangers: The Art and Method of Qualitative Interview Studies. doi
  98. (1995). Limits to Anthropocentrism: Toward an Ecocentric Organization Paradigm? doi
  99. (2000). Linking Livelihoods and Conservation: A Conceptual Framework and Scale for Assessing the Integration of Human Needs and Biodiversity. World Development doi
  100. (1990). Longitudinal Field Research Methods for Studying Processes of Organizational Change. doi
  101. (1990). Longitudinal Field Research on Change Theory and Practice. doi
  102. (2003). Making a Difference: Organization as Design. doi
  103. (2005). Making Ecopreneurs: Developing Sustainable Entrepreneurship. doi
  104. (2004). Making It Happen: Beyond Theories of the Firm to Theories of Firm Design. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice doi
  105. (2001). Making Sense of the Organisation.
  106. (2005). Management Research as a Design Science: Articulating the Research Products doi
  107. (2004). Management Research on the Paradigm of the Design Sciences: The Quest for Field-Tested and Grounded Technological Rules. doi
  108. (1995). Managing Legitimacy: Strategic and Institutional Approaches. doi
  109. (1994). Managing the Environmental Change Process: Barriers and Opportunities.
  110. (1975). Market and Hierarchies: Analysis and Antitrust Implications.
  111. (1980). Markets, bureaucracies and clans. doi
  112. (1992). Method in Social Science: A Realist Approach. doi
  113. (1996). Modem Environmentalism: An Introduction. doi
  114. (1988). Narrative Knowing and the Human Sciences. doi
  115. (2005). Narrative, Organizations and Research. doi
  116. (2006). Native Energy P10 [Memo] Overview and History of 7 March Native Energy (Draft). Prepared by Tom
  117. (2006). Navigating Social and Institutional Barriers to Markets: How Social Entrepreneurs Identify and Evaluate Opportunities.
  118. (1992). New Firm Gestation: Conception, Birth, and Implications for Research. doi
  119. (1987). New Philosophies of Social Science: Realism, Hermeneutics and Critical Theory. doi
  120. (1980). New Venture Strategies.
  121. of Chumbe Reef Sanctuary. Prepared by
  122. (2002). On Organizational Becoming: Rethinking Organizational Change. doi
  123. (1964). On the Concept of Organizational Goal. doi
  124. (2003). On The Path to Sustainability: Integrating Social Dimensions into the Research and Practice of Environmental Management. doi
  125. (1997). On the Virtues of the Old Institutionalism. doi
  126. (1993). Opportunism and Its Critics. doi
  127. (1974). Organization-Envirorunent: Concepts and Issues.
  128. (1970). Organizational Analysis: A Sociological View. doi
  129. (1958). Organizational goals and environment: goalsetting as an interaction process. doi
  130. (1991). Organizational Memory. doi
  131. (1996). Organizational Responses to Crisis: The C' entrality of Trust. In:
  132. (1991). Organizations and Markets.
  133. (1983). Organizations as Action Generators. doi
  134. (1967). Organizations in Action: Social Science Bases of Administrative Theory. doi
  135. (1992). Organizations: Rational, Natural, and Open Systems. doi
  136. (1987). Our Common Future.
  137. (1999). Participatory Rapid Rural Assessment
  138. (1997). People's Accounts Count: The Sociology of Accounts. doi
  139. (1992). People's self-development. In: doi
  140. (1981). Power in Organizations. doi
  141. (1986). Production of Trust: Institutional Sources of Economic Structure,
  142. (1969). Psychology and Economics.
  143. (1994). Qualitative Data Analysis: An Expanded Sourcebook. Thousand Oaks, doi
  144. (1993). Qualitative Interviewing: The Art of Hearing Data. Thousand Oaks, doi
  145. (2000). Qualitative Methods: Their History in Sociology and Anthropology.
  146. (2002). Qualitative Research and Evaluation Methods. Thousand Oaks, doi
  147. (1990). Qualitative Research: Analysis Types & Software Tools. doi
  148. (2002). Real World Research. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. Rocheleau DE. Fortlicoming. Political Ecology in the Key of Policy: From Chains of Explanation to Webs of Relation.
  149. (2000). Realism and Social Science. London: Sage.
  150. (1997). Realistic Evaluation. Thousand Oaks, doi
  151. (2004). Reflections on a Half-Century of Organizational Sociology. doi
  152. (2007). Reflexivity and the Institutional Entrepreneur: A Historical Exploration. doi
  153. (2002). Research in Corporate Sustainability: What Really Matters? In:
  154. (2006). Responding to Organizational Identity Threats: Exploring the Role of Organizational Culture. doi
  155. (2006). Scholarly Communities in Entrepreneurship Research: A Co-Citation Analysis. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice doi
  156. (1997). Serial Entrepreneurs. doi
  157. (2003). Shouldn't Organization Theory Emerge from Adolescence? doi
  158. (2006). Situating Organizational Action: The Relational Sociology of Organizations. doi
  159. (2000). Small Firm Environmental Ethics: How deep do they go? Business Ethics: A European Review 9(l): doi
  160. (1984). Small Wins: Redefining the Scale of Social Problems. doi
  161. (2006). Social Entrepreneurs Directly Contribute to Global Development Goals.
  162. (2006). Social Entrepreneurship: A Critical Review of the Concept.
  163. (2006). Social Entrepreneurship: Innovation and Social Change Across Theory and Practice.
  164. (2006). Social Entrepreneurship: New Models of Sustainable Social Change.
  165. (1999). Social Entrepreneurship: The Role of Social Purpose Enterprises in Facilitating Community Economic Development.
  166. (2003). Social Issues and Management- Our Lost Cause Found. doi
  167. (2002). Social Progress and Sustainable Development. doi
  168. (1965). Social Structure and Organizations. In: doi
  169. (1996). Some Thoughts on Business Plans. In: Sahlman
  170. (2000). Sources of Meaning, Organizations,
  171. (1960). Stages of Economic Growth: A Non-Communist Manifesto Cambridge, UK: doi
  172. (2007). Stakeholder Perception in Sustainable Entrepreneurship: The Role of Managerial and Organizational Cognition. First World
  173. (2002). Strategic sustainable development - selection, design and synergies of applied tools. doi
  174. (2002). Sustainability Issues'for Start-up Entrepre. 14 neurs.
  175. (1997). Sustainable Development: A Transdisciplinary Overview of the Literature. doi
  176. (2004). The Architecture of Multiple Case Study Research doi
  177. (1995). The Art of Case Study Research. Thousand Oaks,
  178. (1983). The Awakening Giant: Continuity and Change in Imperial Chemical Industries. doi
  179. (1987). The Comparative Method: Moving Beyond Qualitative and Quantitative Strategies. doi
  180. (2002). The Competitive Advantage of Corporate Philanthropy.
  181. (1993). The Development of an Infrastructure for Entrepreneurship. doi
  182. (1997). The Distinctive Domain of Entrepreneurship Research: An Editor's Perspective. In:
  183. (1994). the Economics of Extinction Revisited and Revised: A Generalised Framework for the Analysis of the Problems of Endangered Species and Biodiversity Loss.
  184. (2002). The Essence of Ecopreneurship. doi
  185. (1978). The External Control of Organizations: A Resource Dependence Perspective. doi
  186. (2006). The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid: Eradicating Poverty Through Profits. Upper Saddle River, NJ: doi
  187. (2005). The New Institutionalism in Economics and Sociology. doi
  188. (1981). The new Science of Organizations: A Reconceptualization of the Wealth of Nations. Toronto: doi
  189. (2003). The Origins of Organization Theory. In: Tsoukas
  190. (1973). The Politics of Organizational Decision-making. doi
  191. (2000). The Promise of Entrepreneurship as a Field of Research. doi
  192. (2004). The Questions We Ask and the Questions We Care About: Reformulating Some Problems in Entrepreneurship Research. doi
  193. (1983). The Role of the Founder in Creating Organizational Culture. Organizational Dynamics 12(l): doi
  194. (1997). The Science of 'What-IfT Futures 29(6): 533-539. References 267 Reed MI. doi
  195. (1996). The Sciences of the Artificial.
  196. (1979). The Social Psychology of Organizing.
  197. (1951). The Social System. doi
  198. (1992). The Sociology of Organizations: Themes, Perspectives and Prospects. doi
  199. (1980). The Structuring of Organizational Structures. doi
  200. (2006). The Sustainability Perspective: A New Governance Model. In: Kakabadse
  201. (1934). The Theory of Economic Development: An Inquiry into
  202. (1947). The Theory of Social and Economic Organisation. doi
  203. (1989). The Validity of Idiographic Research Explanations. doi
  204. (1978). The Web of Belief.
  205. (2002). the World of the Social Entrepreneur. doi
  206. (1964). Theory of Organizations.
  207. (2000). Three Epistemological Stances for Qualitative Inquiry.
  208. (1984). Toward a Model of Organizations as Interpretation Systems. doi
  209. (1997). Toward a sustaining production theory. doi
  210. (2002). Toward a Theory of Entrepreneurial Cognition: Rethinking the People Side of Entrepreneurship Research. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice doi
  211. (1997). Toward a Theory of Stakeholder Identification and Salience: Defining the Principle of Who and What Really Counts. doi
  212. (2005). Transdisciplinary Case Studies as a Means of Sustainability Learning: Historical Framework and Theory; doi
  213. (1994). Transforming Qualitative Data: Description, Analysis, and Interpretation. Thousand Oaks,
  214. (1953). TVA and the Grass Roots: A Study in the Sociology of Formal Organization. doi
  215. (1995). Weaving an Integrated Web: Multilevel and Multisystem Perspectives of Ecologically Sustainable Organizations. doi
  216. (2006). What Drives Sustainable Entrepreneurs?
  217. (1997). What is a Processual Analysis. doi
  218. (2003). Who Receives the Most Help: The Most Needy or Those with the Best Marketers? doi
  219. (2000). Wood P02 [Application] A submission to North Kesteven
  220. (2005). Wood P03 [Report] Valuation Report for Part Hill Holt 1 Feb. 25 Wood. Prepared by JHWalter, Chartered
  221. (2005). Wood P04 [Plan] Hill Holt Wood Business Plan 05-06 10 May (Draft). Prepared by HHW Project Director
  222. Wood P05 (Report] Hill Holt Wood Social Audit: Panel 2 Oct. 9 Briefing Pack. Prepared by Teresa Butler of 2005 Huddersfield Pride Ltd and the Social Audit Network.
  223. (2005). Wood P06 [Report] Hill Holt Wood Social Audit: Final 7 Oct. -33 Draft (Amended). Prepared by Hill Holt Wood
  224. Wood POS [Map] Map of Hill Holt Wood Property. Undated I Native Energy P09

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.