Location of Repository

The engagement of children with learning difficulties within primary classroom interactions

By Helen Elizabeth May

Abstract

This study aims to further an understanding of the engagement of children with learning difficulties in curricular activities, by focusing on classroom interactions within mainstream primary schools.\ud \ud In the current educational climate, there is a shift towards increasing the participation of children with special needs, alongside recent governmental guidance supporting the implementation of their right to participate. Consequently, there are a growing number of\ud studies offering recognition of children's participation and their potential contribution. They focus on participation being determined by the teacher whereas this research portrays the view of the child in determining their own participation.\ud \ud The research was an exploratory, in-depth study of seven children within two contrasting school settings. The research process entailed the building of a knowledge base upon which to interpret classroom interactions. It drew upon multiple sources and methods of data collection, to identify emerging factors and categories pertaining to children's engagement.\ud \ud The emerging factors fell into three distinct categories; resource engagement, focus of engagement and engagement in the task agenda. Resource engagement is concerned with\ud children's utilisation of social and physical resources whilst focus of engagement considered the subject of children's attention. Lastly, engagement in the task agenda\ud covered the response of the child to the activities set by the teacher.\ud \ud Relevant theories were used to help further an understanding of the identified categories of children's engagement, and focused in particular on three theoretical tenets pertaining to active, subjective and interactive processes. When these three processes were used constitutively, two conclusive themes emerged. Firstly, that engagement is a demonstration of children's autonomy and self-governance and secondly, that engagement is a process by which children become more knowledgeable about their classroom environment and develop autonomous responses to external requirements

Publisher: School of Education (Leeds)
Year: 2002
OAI identifier: oai:etheses.whiterose.ac.uk:351

Suggested articles

Preview

Citations

  1. (1999). A Journey of Discovery. Children's Creative Participation in Planning. London: Save the Children.
  2. (1969). A Ladder of Citizen Participation. doi
  3. (1994). A Special, Special Need: Self-Advocacy, Curriculum and The Needs of Children with Severe Learning Difficulties. In
  4. (1999). A Teachers Guide to the Psychology of Learning (2nd edition).
  5. (1979). A Theory of Motivation for Some Classroom Experiences. doi
  6. (1976). An Investigation of Children's Self-Concept of Responsibility for their School Learning. doi
  7. (2000). Analysing Talk and Text. In doi
  8. (1970). Analysing Teacher Behavior.
  9. (1996). Apprenticeship in thinking. Cognitiiv Development in Social Context. New York: doi
  10. (1993). Assessing Special Educational Needs: The Child's Contribution. doi
  11. (2001). Autonomy and Identity: The Need for New Dialogues doi
  12. (2001). b). Editorial. FORUM for promoting 3-19 comprehensite education,
  13. (1998). Basics of, ual tative Research. Techniques and Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory (2nd edition). Thousand Oaks, doi
  14. (1996). Beyond Special Needs. Enchanting Children's Learning through Innovative Thinking
  15. (2001). Beyond the Rhetoric of Student Voice: New Departures or New Constraints in the Transformation of 21st Century Schooling? FORUM for promoting 3-19 comprehensite education, doi
  16. (1998). Case Studies. In doi
  17. (1999). Case Study Research in Educational Settings.
  18. (1987). Child in Control: Towards an Interpretive Model of Teaching and Learning. In
  19. (2000). Children as Partners in Planning. A Training Resource to Support Consultation with Children. London: Save the Children.
  20. (1995). Children with Special Needs. Assessment, Lazy and Practice. Caught in the Acts (3rd edition).
  21. (1978). Children's Minds. doi
  22. (1992). Children's Participation. From Tokenism to Citizenship.
  23. (1996). Children's Perceptions of Professionals in SEN. In
  24. (2002). Children's Rights and Child Impact Analysis: Making Children Visible in Government. doi
  25. (1983). Circular 1183.
  26. (1994). Code of Practice on the Identification and Assessment of Special Educational Needs.
  27. (2002). Cognitive, Emotional and Behavioural Responses to Students with Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties: A model of decision-making. doi
  28. (1987). Common Knowledge: The Development of Understanding in the Classroom.
  29. (1996). Common Problems in Fieldwork A Personal Essay. In
  30. (1993). Commonsense Methods for Children with Special Needs. doi
  31. (2000). Constructive instruction and learning difficulties. doi
  32. (1998). Constructivist, Interpretivist Approaches to Human Inquiry. In
  33. (2001). Consulting Young People in Schools. Teaching and Learning Research Programme.
  34. (2000). Contesting Childhood. London: Falmer. doi
  35. (1989). Conventions on the lights of the Child.
  36. (1996). Critical Ethnography in Educational Research. A theoretical and practical guide. doi
  37. (2000). Culture and Pedagogy: doi
  38. (1991). Culture and Power in the Classroom. A Critical Foundation for Bicultural Education. doi
  39. (1996). Developing Self-Regulated Learners. Beyond Achievement to Self-Efcacy. Washington DC: doi
  40. (1994). Developments in qualitative data analysis: an introduction. In doi
  41. (1996). Disabled, Handicapped or Disordered: 'What's in a Name? ' In
  42. (1989). Discipline in Schools - Re port of the Committee of Enquiry chaired by Lord Elton.
  43. (1998). Don't Leave Us Out. Involving Disabled Children with Communication Impairments.
  44. (1988). Education Reform Act doi
  45. (1978). Effectance Motivation Reconsidered: Toward a Developmental Model. Human Development, doi
  46. (1994). Enabling Pupils with Learning Difficulties to Reflect on their own Learning. doi
  47. (1998). Ethnography and Participant Observation. In
  48. (2000). Ethnography: doi
  49. (1997). Excellence for All Children - Meeting Special Educational Needs.
  50. (1998). Factors Influencing Children's Acquisition and Demonstration of Self-Regulation on Academic Tasks. In
  51. (1995). First Report to the UNCRC.
  52. (2001). Focus on.... a teacher working with Project 1.
  53. (2002). For once,, jargon that works. The Daily Telegraph.
  54. (1966). Generalised Expectancies for Internal versus External Control of Reinforcement. doi
  55. (1998). Having a Say! Disabled Children and Effective Partnership in Decision Making. London: Council for Disabled Children.
  56. (1975). He plessness: On Depression Development and Death.
  57. (1999). I'll Go First. The Planning and Review Toolkitfor Use with Children with Disabilities. London: The Children's Society.
  58. (1984). In the field. An Introduction to Field Research. doi
  59. (1986). Inside Schools. Ethnography in Educational Research. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
  60. (1996). Interactive Approaches to Teaching. A framework for INSET.
  61. (1996). Introduction: Partnership with Children: The Advancing Trend. In
  62. (2000). Involving Pupils in Practice. Promoting Partnerships with Pupils with Special Educational Needs. London: David Fulton. doi
  63. (1998). Keading Ethnographic Research (2nd edition).
  64. (1994). Language, Communication and Personal Power: A Developmental Perspective.
  65. (1993). Learning from Pupil Perspectives.
  66. (2001). Learning to Listen. Core Principles for the Involvement of Children and Young People.
  67. (1992). Learning Together Through Talk. Keg Stages I and 2. London: Hodder and Stoughton.
  68. (1998). Lecture Notes - Module 5040. Teaching and Learning: Concepts, Knowledge, Skill and Learning Promotion Potential.
  69. (1996). Listening to Children in Educational Contexts. In
  70. (1996). Listening to Children with Disabilities and Special Educational Needs. In
  71. (1997). Locus of Control, Personal Control and the Counselling of Children with Learning and/or Behaviour Problems. doi
  72. (2002). Making Rights Stick: Children's Rights Commissioner Work in Oxfordshire. doi
  73. (1996). Making Sense of Quaktatit Data. Complementary Research Strategies. Thousand Oaks,
  74. (1994). Meaningful Content and Contexts for Learning.
  75. (1998). Meeting Special Educational Needs: A Programme of Action.
  76. (1998). Mind as Action. doi
  77. (1978). Mind in Society. The Development of Higher Pychological Processes. Cambridge:
  78. (1985). Naturalistic Inquiry. doi
  79. (1989). Needs, Rights and Opportunities in Special Education. In
  80. (1993). Neo-Vygotskian Theory and Classroom Education.
  81. (1997). Never Too Young. How Young Children Can Take Res ponsibility and Make Decisions. A Handbook for Early Years Workers London: National Early years Network/Save the Children.
  82. (1998). Observational Techniques. In doi
  83. (1995). Observing Sociocultural Activity on Three Planes: Participatory Appropriation, Guided Participation and Apprenticeship. In doi
  84. (2001). Opening the Floodgates: Giving Students a Voice in School Reform. FORUM forpromoting 3-19 comprehensiz' doi
  85. (1994). Participant Obserr. An Autobiography.
  86. (1981). Perceived Personal Control and Academic Achievement. doi
  87. (1968). Personal Causation. doi
  88. (2001). Promoting Children's Welfare by Respecting their Rights. In
  89. (1996). Promoting the Greater Involvement of Pupils with Special Needs in the Management of their own Assessment and Learning Processes. doi
  90. (1997). Prychology for Language Teachers. A Social ConstrztctivistA proach. Cambridge:
  91. (2000). Pupil Participation and Pupil Perspectives: Carving a New Order of Experience. doi
  92. (2001). Pupil Participation in Interactive Whole-Class Teaching'.
  93. (1994). Pupil Participation in Their Own Records of Achievement. In
  94. (1993). Qual tatite Data Analysis. A User-Friendly Guide for Social Scientists. doi
  95. (1990). Qualitativ Research: Analysis Types and Software Tools. doi
  96. (1987). Qualitative Analysis for Social Scientists. Cambridge: doi
  97. (1994). Qualitative Data Analysis. - An Expanded Source book (2nd edition). Thousand Oaks, doi
  98. (1992). Questionnaire Design, Interviewing and Attitude Measurement (2nd edition). doi
  99. (1993). Real World Research. A Resource for Social Scientists and PractitionerResearchers.
  100. (1994). Reflections on qualitative data analysis. doi
  101. (1975). Reproductive Risk and the Continuum of Caretaking Casualty. In
  102. (1995). Research and the Teacher. AQualitative Introduction to School-based Research (2nd edition).
  103. (1983). Research on the Self-fulfilling Prophecy and Teacher Expectations. doi
  104. (1988). Rousing Minds to Life. Cambridge: doi
  105. (1996). Rules, Routines and Regimentation: Young Children Reporting on their Schooling Nottingham:
  106. (2001). Schools Building on Success: Raising standards, promoting diversity, achiei ng results.
  107. (1997). Seen and Heard. Involving Disabled Children and Young People
  108. (1997). Self Fulfi'lliq Pro phecy. A Practical Guide to its Use in Education.
  109. (1997). Self- fcacy. The Exercise of Control.
  110. (1999). Self-Assessment for Pupils with Learning Difficulties. doi
  111. (1977). Self-efficacy: Towards a Unifying Theory of Behavioural Change. Pychological Review, doi
  112. (1991). Situated Learning. Legitimate Peripheral Participation. Cambridge: doi
  113. (2002). Small-Scale Research. Pragmatic Inquiry
  114. (1994). Some Implications of the High/Scope Curriculum and the Education of Children with Learning Difficulties.
  115. Special Educational Needs and Disability Act. London: The Stationary Office.
  116. (1978). Special Educational Needs: Report of the Committee of Enquiry into the Education of Handicapped Children and Young People. The Warnock Report. doi
  117. (2001). Special Needs Education as the Way to Equity: An Alternative Approach. doi
  118. (2002). Spring). Playing a Part. Special. Supporting and Developing Good Practice.
  119. (2001). Squeaky Wheels and Flat Tires: a case study of students as reform participants. FORUM forpromoting 3-19 comprehensive education, doi
  120. (1996). Starting from the Child? Teaching and Learning from 4 to 8.
  121. (1996). Supporting Learning within the Classroom. In
  122. (2001). Supporting Teachers in Consulting Pupils about Aspects of Teaching and Learning, and Evaluating Impact. FORUM for promoting 3-19 comprehensive education, doi
  123. (1988). Target Student Involvement in High School Science. doi
  124. (1998). Teacher Expectations: Implications for School Improvement. In doi
  125. (1985). Teacher-Student Interaction. In doi
  126. (1994). Teaching Pupils with Profound and Multiple Learning Difficulties. doi
  127. (1993). The Child as Thinker. The Development and Acquisition of Cognition in Childhood. doi
  128. (1958). The Child's Construction of Reality. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
  129. (1997). The Collected if, ork. r of L. doi
  130. (2002). The Education Act doi
  131. (1981). The Genesis of Higher Mental Functions. In doi
  132. (1998). The Good Research Guide for small-scale social research projects. doi
  133. (1996). The Law in Relation to the Wishes and Feelings of the Child. In
  134. (1998). The Learning Company. Retrieved, from the World Wide Web: Palincsar,
  135. (1999). The National Curriculum forEngland.
  136. (1998). The National Literacy Strategy: Framework for Teaching.
  137. (1998). The National Numeracy Strategy: Framework for teaching mathematics from Reception to Year 6.
  138. (1996). The Nature of the Social for Plaget and Vygotsky. Human Development, doi
  139. (1998). The New Oxford Dictionary of English. doi
  140. (1987). The Origins of Inference. In
  141. (1990). The Practice ofQuestioning.
  142. (1958). The Psychology of Interpersonal Relations. doi
  143. (1973). The Relevance of Education. doi
  144. (1999). The SEN Code of Practice: Three Years On.
  145. (1975). The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. doi
  146. (1995). The Theory of Learning. An Introduction Kogan Page.
  147. (1995). Timewatch. The SocialAnalysis of Time.
  148. (1966). Towards a Theory of Instruction. doi
  149. (1977). Towards an Ecology of Human Development. doi
  150. (1999). Understanding the Development of Inclusive Schools. doi
  151. (2002). Using Image-Based Techniques in Researching Pupil Perspectives. Communicating ....
  152. (1993). Valuing the Child's Perspective. A Revised Student Report and Other Practical Initiatives. Educational Pychology in Practice, doi
  153. (1985). Vygotsky and the Social Formation of Mind Cambridge, doi
  154. (1999). Vygotsky's Methodological Contribution to Sociocultural Tlieor-y. doi
  155. (2002). What's In It For Us? Pupil Consultation and Participation..
  156. (2001). Where is Your School on the Ladder?
  157. (1995). Working with Parents as Partners
  158. (2000). Young Children's Rights. Exploring Beliefs, Principles and Practice. doi

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.