Location of Repository

The foreign direct investment behaviour of Chinese firms : does the 'new institutional theory' approach offer explanatory power?

By Hinrich Voss

Abstract

The People's Republic of China has become a major source country for foreign direct investment. The objectives of this research are to identify the determinants of this phenomenon, to identify the international investment strategies pursued by Chinese MNEs, and to evaluate the\ud effect of the domestic and international institutional environments on the determinants, investment strategies and behaviour of Chinese MNEs. Particular emphasis is given to the role of cross-border business and social networks. To address these objectives a novel framework, termed the Chinese outward direct investment regime (or ODIR), is advanced and tested using methodological triangulation techniques. This is done using data obtained from several sources, namely interviews with managers at the headquarters of Chinese MNEs and Chinese government officials, a survey questionnaire distributed to Chinese affiliates in the UK and official FDI data obtained from SAFE and MOFCOM, which are used in two econometric\ud models of global Chinese ODI.\ud \ud The research makes a number of major contributions. First, the ODIR framework is found to have significant explanatory power in a number of key respects, especially in relation to the influence of domestic institutional factors on the internationalisation behaviour of Chinese MNEs. Second, the importance of domestic capital market imperfections as a driver of Chinese ODI is also confirmed. Capital market imperfections as a special application of the internalisation theory (Buckley and Casson, 1976) is argued to explain certain idiosyncratic investment behaviours observed among Chinese firms, especially in relation to host country risk. Third, a number of new proxies for international business research have been developed and\ud applied successfully in models. Fourth, New Institutional Theory, the Stages Theory and the New International Venture theory have all been tested for the first time in relation to Chinese ODI. Of these, New Institutional Theory was found to have greatest explanatory power

Publisher: Leeds University Business School
Year: 2007
OAI identifier: oai:etheses.whiterose.ac.uk:367

Suggested articles

Preview

Citations

  1. (2007). (2004b) '2004 [Statistical Bulletin of China's foreign direct investment 2004], [www document] hzs. mofcom. gov. cn/table/2004090 9. pdf (accessed 19
  2. (2007). (2006a) `Thoughts on implementation of economic and trade cooperation between China and the developing countries',
  3. (2005). (2006a) World Development Indicators (WDI), doi
  4. (2006b) Global Development Finance 2006: The Development Potential of Surging Capital Flows, World Bank: Washington D. doi
  5. (2006). (2006e) 'ICBC set for Indonesia move',
  6. (1998). 223 Overseas Chinese Affairs Commission
  7. (2006). 231 World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO) doi
  8. (2000). A doi
  9. (2006). A capabilities perspective on the effects of early internationalization on firm survival and growth', doi
  10. (2003). A challenge to traditional stage models of internationalization - An empirical research on a Chinese company's successful internationalizing process', paper presented at the EAMSA 20`h Annual Conference,
  11. (1991). A critical-assessment of the eclectic theory of the multinational-enterprise', doi
  12. (2003). A Diaspora of Chinese settlement in Latin America and the Caribbean',
  13. (2006). A quarter century of culture's consequences: a review of empirical research incorporating Hofstede's cultural values framework', doi
  14. (2005). A review of the empirical literature on FDI determinants', doi
  15. (2002). A study of policies on encouraging investment abroad',
  16. (2005). A theory of international new ventures: a decade of research', doi
  17. (1999). A theory of international operations',
  18. (2002). Absolute and relative resources as determinants of international acquisitions', doi
  19. (2001). Accounting in China in Transition, 1949-2000, World Scientific: River Edge, doi
  20. (2001). Accuracy and reliability of China's energy statistics', doi
  21. (2005). Administration for Foreign Exchange
  22. (2005). Administration of investment overseas by PRC domestic individuals',
  23. (2006). Africa Foreign Investor Survey 2005: Understanding the contribution of different investor categories to development - Implications for targeting strategies,
  24. (2007). Africa's Silk Road: China and India's New Economic Frontier, doi
  25. (2006). All-Ukrainian Population Census
  26. (2006). An analysis of home country trade effects of outward foreign direct investment: The Korean experience with ASEAN, 1987-2002', doi
  27. (2001). An assessment of outward foreign direct investment from China's transitional economy', doi
  28. (1994). An Econometric Analysis of Foreign Direct Investment in Spain, 1964-89', doi
  29. (2007). An econometric investigation of Chinese outward direct investment', forthcoming doi
  30. (1997). An empirical analysis of outward foreign direct investment of Korea and Japan',
  31. (2006). An examination of recent trends in Chinese outbound direct investment', CIBUL Working Paper,
  32. (2000). Analysing the determinants of US direct investment in Mexico', doi
  33. Asian Foreign Direct Investment in Africa: Towards a New Era of Cooperation among Developing Countries,
  34. (2004). Asian network firms - an analytical framework', doi
  35. (2002). Asset-exploitation versus asset-seeking: implications for location choice of foreign direct investment from newly industrialized economies', doi
  36. (1997). Between markets and politics: organizational responses to reforms in China',
  37. (2000). Bilateral investment treaties 1959-1999,
  38. (2002). Building a favourable investment environment: evidence for the facilitation of FDI in China', The World Economy doi
  39. (2006). Building collegial information networks: a theory of advice network generation', doi
  40. (2000). Bumpy road leading to internationalization: a review of accounting development China', doi
  41. (2005). Business groups and social organization', doi
  42. (2003). Business relationship learning and commitment in the internationalisation process',
  43. (2006). Business Week's Global 1000, [www document] (accessed 7
  44. (2005). Buy abroad, benefit at home',
  45. (2002). Buying fast into Southeast Asia',
  46. (2005). Can China Create Global Companies? ',
  47. (2001). Capital account liberalization in China: prospects, prerequisites, and pitfalls',
  48. (2004). Capital flight from China: 1984-2001' doi
  49. (1990). Capital flows, foreign direct investment, and debt-equity swaps in developing countries', doi
  50. (2000). Capital mobility and investor confidence: the case of Hong Kong's reversion to China's sovereignty', doi
  51. (2005). China Academy of International Trade and Economic Cooperation (CAITEC) of the Ministry of Commerce and The Welsh Development Agency (WDA)
  52. (2002). China and the global business revolution', doi
  53. (2006). China as a Global Investor: Can Belgium Benefit?, Report commissioned by Federation of Enterprises
  54. (2004). China eases control on overseas investment',
  55. (2004). China finance: Chinese firms encouraged to invest abroad',
  56. (2004). China goes West - Eine Chance für die deutsche
  57. (1998). China in International Society since 1949: Alienation and Beyond, doi
  58. (2002). China in the World Economy: The Domestic Policy Challenges, doi
  59. (2002). China to micro-monitor overseas operations of its firms',
  60. (2006). China-ASEAN investment agreement negotiations', doi
  61. (2006). China's Africa policy: business now, politics later',
  62. (2006). China's African Policy',
  63. (2006). China's embrace of globalization', doi
  64. (2003). China's Emerging Global Businesses: Political Economy and Institutional Investigations, doi
  65. (2000). China's Emerging Private Enterprises: Prospects for the New Century, IFC:
  66. (2003). China's exchange rate policy: the case for greater flexibility', doi
  67. (2003). China's foreign exchange policies since 1979: A review of developments and an assessment', doi
  68. (2005). China's global hunt for energy', doi
  69. (2004). China's gross domestic product estimation', doi
  70. (2003). China's industrial state-owned enterprises between profitability and bankruptcy, World Scientific: Singapore and Hong Kong. doi
  71. (2005). China's Offshore Investments: A Network Approach,
  72. (2003). China's outward direct investment: expanding worldwide', doi
  73. (1999). China's overseas investment',
  74. (2004). China's progression toward currency convertibility',
  75. (2004). China's regional trade agreements: the law, geopolitics, and impact on the multilateral trading system',
  76. (2002). China's rising investment in Southeast Asia: Trends and outlook',
  77. (2006). China's telecom industry on the move: Domestic competition, global ambition, and leadership transition', China Leadership Monitor No 19,
  78. (2001). China's transition and its implications for international business', doi
  79. (1998). China's Unfinished Economic Revolution, doi
  80. (2007). Chinese China's carmakers want to be global deep enough pockets for the US company', FT (2007b) `Rover versus Rover on streets of China',
  81. (2005). Chinese companies on the global M&A stage - domestic regulatory issues',
  82. (1998). Chinese consumers' perception of alpha-numeric brand names', doi
  83. (2007). Chinese direct investment in the United Kingdom: An assessment of motivations and competitiveness', paper presented at the international conferences Four Decades of International Business at Reading: Looking to the Future,
  84. (2005). Chinese economic development, next stage: outward FDI? ', doi
  85. (1995). Chinese Firms' Transnational Operations and Strategies, Chinese Development Press:
  86. (2005). Chinese outward direct investment in Southeast Asia: how big are the flows and what does it mean for the region? ', The Pacific Review doi
  87. (1996). Chinese outward investment in Hong Kong: Trends, prospects and policy implications', doi
  88. (1979). Chinese policy toward the Third World and the superpowers in the UN General Assembly 1971-1977: A voting analysis', doi
  89. (2001). Chinese puzzles and paradoxes conducting business research in China', doi
  90. (1992). Chinese transnational corporations',
  91. (2004). Chinese yuan (Renminbi) Derivative Products, World Scientific doi
  92. (2007). CIBUL China M&A Database, disclosed database at the
  93. (1997). Circumstance and choice: the role of initial conditions policies in transition economies', World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 1866, doi
  94. (2003). Close encounters: Chinese business networks as industrial catalysts in Sub-Saharan Africa', doi
  95. (1985). Clustering countries on attitudinal dimensions: a review and synthesis', doi
  96. (2005). CNOOC scraps move for Unocal',
  97. (2006). Commitment and opportunity development in the internationalization process: a note on the Uppsala Internationalization Process Model', doi
  98. (2001). Comparing innovation systems: a framework and application to China's transitional context', doi
  99. (2007). Concepts and Definitions - Kleine und mittlere Unternehmen', [www document] http:
  100. (2006). Conceptualizing and measuring cultures and their consequences: a comparative review of GLOBE's and Hofstede's approaches', doi
  101. (1993). Contemporary theories of international direct-investment', doi
  102. (2004). Controlling for risk: An analysis of China's system of foreign exchange and exchange rate management',
  103. (1982). Conventional theory and unconventional multinationals: do new forms of multinational enterprise require new theories? ',
  104. (2003). Corporate governance in China: an overview', doi
  105. (2004). Corruption and change: the impact of foreign direct investment', doi
  106. (2002). Corruption and foreign direct investment', doi
  107. (1994). Country capabilities and the strategic state: How national political institutions affect multinational corporations' strategies', doi
  108. (2003). Country factor differentials as determinants of FDI flow to China', doi
  109. (2001). Country Risk Measures: How Risky Are They? ', doi
  110. (2001). Country risk, country risk indices and valuation of FDI: a real options approach', doi
  111. (2001). Cultural distance revisited: Towards a more rigorous conceptualization and measurement of cultural differences', doi
  112. (2003). Cultural influence, questionnaire formation and manager response in Sino-American international joint venture', doi
  113. (1980). Cultures Consequences: International Differences in Work-Related Values, doi
  114. (2005). Dealing with exchange rate protectionism',
  115. (2004). Deconstructing China's ' GDP statistics', doi
  116. (2005). Defining international entrepreneurship and modeling the speed of internationalization', doi
  117. (2006). Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu doi
  118. (1993). Deng Xiaoping: the economist', China Quarterly 135(Special Issue, doi
  119. (1993). Deng Xiaoping: the statesman', China Quarterly 135(Special Issue, doi
  120. (2001). Detecting the pitfalls of data on foreign direct investment: Scope and limits of FDI data',
  121. (2005). Determinants and effects of foreign direct investment: evidence from German firm-level data', Economic Policy doi
  122. (2002). Determinants of foreign direct investment across China', doi
  123. (2004). Determinants of foreign direct investment in Africa', doi
  124. (2002). Determinants of foreign direct investment', doi
  125. (1988). Determinants of foreign investment of US advertising agencies', doi
  126. (2003). Determinants of German foreign direct investment in Latin American and Asian emerging markets in the 1990s', Discussion Paper 11/03, Economic Research Centre of the Deutsche Bundesbank, Deutsche Bank: Frankfurt a.
  127. (1980). Determinants of U. S. direct investment in the E. E. C.: further evidence', doi
  128. (1983). Determinants of U. S. direct investment in the E. E. C.: revisited again', doi
  129. (2006). Developing a multidimensional instrument to measure psychic distance stimuli', doi
  130. (2000). Developing overseas investments with overseas processing trade as the new starting point',
  131. (1977). Direct investment by firms from less developed countries',
  132. (2006). Distribution of the ethnic Chinese population around the world,
  133. (2003). Do bilateral investment treaties attract FDI? Only a bit... and they could bite', World Bank Policy Research Paper WPS 3121, World Bank: Washington D. doi
  134. (2005). Do bilateral investment treaties increase foreign direct investment to developing countries? ', doi
  135. (2005). Do BITs really work? An evaluation of bilateral investment treaties and their grand bargain', doi
  136. (2006). Do investment agreements matter? ', doi
  137. (2006). Dynamics of internationalization and outward investment: Chinese corporations' strategies', doi
  138. (1998). East Asian FDI and the UK periphery', doi
  139. (1985). Economic action and social structure: the problem of embeddedness', doi
  140. (1991). Economic Theories in China, 1979-1988, doi
  141. (2006). edu/opac/population. php (accessed 17
  142. (1972). EEC tariffs doi
  143. (2001). Effects of outward foreign direct investment on home country exports: the case of Korean firms',
  144. (2001). Eigene Dolmetscher sind mehr als Übersetzer', China Contact
  145. (2004). Eine Analyse des Zusammenhangs von Infrastruktur und Wirtschaftsentwicklung ausgewählter Regionen der VR China mittels der Theorie der Verfügungsrechte, unpublished Diplomarbeit at the
  146. (2004). Enter the Dragon: An Analysis of Chinese FDI into London,
  147. (1997). Entrepreneurial networks in international business', doi
  148. (2001). Estimating the performance effects of business groups in emerging markets', doi
  149. (2003). Ethnic Chinese networking in cross-border investment: the impact of economic and institutional development', HIEBS Working Papers No 1024, The University of Hong Kong: Hong Kong.
  150. (2003). Ethnic Chinese networks and international investment: evidence from inward FDI in China', doi
  151. (2002). Ethnic Chinese networks in international trade', doi
  152. (1996). European multinational activity in telecommunications services in the Peoples Republic of China: firm strategy and government policy',
  153. (1992). Evaluating country risk: a decision support approach', doi
  154. (2002). Evidence from China on whether harmonized accounting standards harmonize accounting practices', doi
  155. (1977). Exchange rate changes, profitability, and direct foreign investment', doi
  156. (1991). Exchange rates and foreign direct investment: an imperfect capital market approach', doi
  157. (1997). Experiential knowledge and cost in the internationalization process',
  158. (2007). Explaining China's outbound FDI: an institutional perspective', forthcoming doi
  159. (1994). Explaining the formation of International New Ventures - the limits of theories from international-business research', doi
  160. (2006). FDI database (WIR
  161. (2002). FDI from Developing Countries: A Vector for Trade and Development, doi
  162. (2006). FDI inflows to the transition economies in Eastern Europe: magnitude and determinates',
  163. (1992). Foreign direct investment and economic development', doi
  164. (2004). Foreign Direct Investment and Regional Trade Agreements: The Market Size Effect Revisited', IMF Working Paper WP/04/206, IMF: Washington D.
  165. (2005). Foreign direct investment and the business environment in developing countries: the impact of bilateral investment treaties', doi
  166. (2003). Foreign direct investment by transnationals from emerging countries: the case of China', doi
  167. (2006). Foreign direct investment in Africa: The role of natural resources, market size, government policy, institutions and political instability', doi
  168. (1999). Foreign direct investment in China: recent trends and current policy issues', doi
  169. (1999). Foreign direct investment in developing countries',
  170. (1996). Foreign direct investment in the United States: an analysis by country of origin', doi
  171. (1999). Foreign direct investments flows to and from China',
  172. (1999). Foreign exchange rate reform, the balance of trade and economic growth: an empirical analysis for China',
  173. (1992). Foreign Trade and Economic Reform in China 1978-1990, doi
  174. (2006). Forex purchase quotas lifted',
  175. (1998). Forging Reform in China: The Fate of State-Owned Industry, doi
  176. (2007). Fortune Global 500 - Countries: doi
  177. (1991). From Bandwagon to Balance-of-Power Politics: Structural Constraints and Politics doi
  178. (1996). From fiefs to clans and network capitalism: explaining China's emerging economic order', doi
  179. (2003). From Middle Kingdom to Global Market: Expansion Strategies and Success Factors for China's Emerging Multinationals, Roland Berger Strategy Consultants:
  180. (1998). From survival to success: the journey of corporate transformation at Haier', William Davidson Institute Working Paper 207,
  181. (2005). FT (2005a) `Nanjing wins Rover for £50m',
  182. (2005). FT (2005b) `China leads the way, building on ties that go back 30 years',
  183. (2005). FT (2005d) `Global brand strategy key for Lenovo',
  184. (2006). FT (2006a) `China loans `create new wave of Africa debt",
  185. FT (2007c) `Low-profile Huawei technologies has already outgrown its roots in the People's Liberation Army',
  186. (2006). Fund (IMF) doi
  187. (2003). Fuzzy concepts, scanty evidence, policy distance: The case for rigour and policy relevance in critical Regional Studies', doi
  188. (1994). Getting strict with foreign exchange',
  189. (2002). Global foreign direct investment flows: The role of governance infrastructure', doi
  190. (2003). Global shift: Reshaping the Global Economic Map doi
  191. (2002). Globalization strategies of Chinese companies: current developments and future prospects', doi
  192. (2000). Globalization, institutionalization and the social foundation of Chinese business networks',
  193. (2000). Going global: Lessons from late movers',
  194. (2006). Going global: Prospects and challenges for Chinese companies on the world stage, IBM Business Consulting Services:
  195. (2005). Going Global: The Why, When, Where and How of Chinese Companies' Outward Investment Intentions, Asia Pacific Foundation of Canada:
  196. (2004). Governance and Politics in China, 2°d edition, doi
  197. (2003). Governance infrastructure and US foreign direct investment', doi
  198. (1993). Government policies, market imperfections, and foreign direct investments', doi
  199. (1995). Growing out of the Plan: Chinese Economic Reform, 1978-1993, doi
  200. (2003). Haier's survival strategy to compete with world giants', doi
  201. (2005). How do we know when an enterprise exists? Unanswerable questions and legal polycentricity in China', doi
  202. (2002). How fast is China's economy really growing? ',
  203. (1994). Immigrant links to the home country: empirical evidence from U. S. bilateral trade flows', doi
  204. (2006). Implementing the strategy of Going Global to speed up the pace of foreign economic cooperation',
  205. (2001). Implementing vigorously the opening strategy of "going global"',
  206. (1989). In search of appropriate methodology: from outside the People's Republic of China looking inside', doi
  207. (2007). in-chief) (2007) `China's South-South Cooperation (TCDC/ECDC) Development Strategy',
  208. (2007). Indicators of Governance and Institutional Quality', [www document] http: //siteresources. worldbank. org/INTLAWJUSTINST/Resources/IndicatorsGovernan ceandlnstitutionalQuality. pdf (accessed 12
  209. (2003). Industry evolution and internationalization processes of firms from a newly industrialized economy', doi
  210. (1997). Inflows of foreign technology and indigenous technological development', doi
  211. (2000). Informal privatization through internationalization: the rise of nomenklatura capitalism in China's offshore business', doi
  212. (2007). Institutional determinants of foreign direct investment', doi
  213. (1997). Institutionalization and structuration: Studying the links between action and institution', doi
  214. (1990). Institutions, Institutional Change and Economic Performance, doi
  215. (2004). Institutions, internationalization and FDI: the case of economies in transition',
  216. (1990). International cooperative venture strategies: outward investment and small firms from NICs',
  217. (1998). International development by Chinese enterprises: key issues for the future', Long Range Planning doi
  218. (1995). International expansion strategy of Japanese firms: capability building through sequential entry', doi
  219. (1966). International investment and international trade in the product cycle', doi
  220. (1992). International investment location decisions: the case for U. doi
  221. (1996). International management strategies of Chinese multinational firms',
  222. (2005). International R&D strategies of TNCs from developing countries: the case of China',
  223. (2005). International substitutes for domestic institutions: bilateral investment treaties and governance', doi
  224. (1994). International-business political behavior: new theoretical directions', doi
  225. (2000). Internationalisation of Asian business',
  226. (2000). Internationalisation of ethnic Chinese-owned enterprises: A network approach',
  227. (1996). Internationalization and competitive catchup processes: case study evidence on Chinese multinational enterprises',
  228. (1997). Internationalization and market entry mode: A review of theories and conceptual frameworks',
  229. (2003). Internationalization of Chinese construction enterprises', doi
  230. (2006). Internationalization strategies of emerging Asian MNEs - case study evidence on Singaporean and Malaysian Firms', Asia Pacific Business Review 12(October): doi
  231. (2002). Internationalization strategies of emerging Asian MNEs: cases study evidence on Taiwanese firms', doi
  232. (1999). Internationalization theory and Korean multinationals',
  233. (1992). Internationalization, internalization, or a new theory for small, lowtechnology multinational enterprise? ', doi
  234. (2003). Internationalization, local adaptation, and subsidiary's entrepreneurship: an exploratory study on Taiwanese manufacturing firms in Indonesia and Malaysia', Asia Pacific
  235. (1988). Internationalization: evolution of a concept',
  236. (2001). Interviewing elites', doi
  237. (1993). Interviewing important people in big companies', doi
  238. (2004). Intra-ethnic cooperation in transitional perspective: Malaysian Chinese investments in the United Kingdom',
  239. (2000). Investimenti diretti esteri e fattori di localizzione: L'America Latina e il Sud East asiatico',
  240. (1993). Inward-outward connections in internationalization', doi
  241. (2004). Is foreign direct investment attracted to `knowledge creators'? doi
  242. (2004). Kelon: "We Are a Multibrand Company" - Chairman Gu Chujun explains the $4 billion refrigerator and air conditioner maker's three-pronged strategy',
  243. (1993). Knowledge of the firm and the evolutionary theory of the multinational corporation', doi
  244. (2005). Knowledge sourcing in foreign direct investments: an empirical examination of target profiles',
  245. (2003). Knowledge, internationalization of the firm, and inward-outward connections', doi
  246. (1998). Korean direct investment in manufacturing: Its patterns and determinants - an empirical analysis',
  247. (2002). Korean multinationals' foreign direct investment projects: variability in the micro- and macro-level determinants', doi
  248. (2001). Lasting Sino-African friendship', doi
  249. (2004). Late development experience and the evolution of transnational firms in the People's Republic of China', Asia Pacific Business Review doi
  250. (2006). Leading cultural research in the future: a matter of paradigms and taste', doi
  251. (2000). Learning through joint ventures: a framework of knowledge acquisition', doi
  252. (1998). Location and the multinational enterprise: A neglected factor? ', doi
  253. (2005). Lower benchmark for private enterprises to do foreign trade',
  254. (1999). Malaysian reverse investments: trends and strategies',
  255. (1994). Management in China during the Age of Reform, doi
  256. (2006). MG owner Nanjing to lease Longbridge',
  257. (2004). Micromultinationals: some preliminary evidence on an emergent `star' of the international entrepreneurship field', doi
  258. (2006). Minister warns of overseas investment risk',
  259. (2005). Ministry of Commerce and State Administration of Foreign Exchange, Reporting system for offshore merger and acquisition matters at the preliminary stage by enterprises 2100/05.03.31',
  260. (1998). Mixed Methodology: Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches, doi
  261. (2007). MOFCOM (2004a) `Provisions on the examination and approval of investment to run enterprises abroad',
  262. (2006). MOFCOM (2006b) `China Eximbank supports private companies going global',
  263. (2007). MOFCOM (various years) China Commerce Yearbook, China Commerce and Trade Press:
  264. (1993). Multinational Enterprises and the Global Economy, doi
  265. (1980). Multinational enterprises from the Third World', doi
  266. (1986). Multinational enterprises of developing countries: some emerging characteristics',
  267. (1983). Multinationals from Brazil',
  268. (1999). Multinationals without advantages', doi
  269. (2005). National security regulation of foreign investments and Acquisitions in the United States',
  270. (1998). Network linkages and location choice in foreign direct investment', doi
  271. (2003). Network resources for internationalization: the case of Taiwan's electronics firms', doi
  272. (2006). New frontiers in network theory development', doi
  273. (2005). New Institutional Economics and FDI location doi
  274. (2005). New regulations encouraging investment overseas by Chinese enterprises',
  275. (2005). New sources of FDI: the BRICs. Outward FDI from Brazil, Russia, India and China',
  276. OECD (2005a) OECD Handbookfor Economic Globalisation Indicators, doi
  277. (1996). OECD Benchmark Definition of Foreign Direct Investment, Third Edition, doi
  278. (1970). Official regulation of British overseas investment, 1914-1931', doi
  279. (2006). Oil Information doi
  280. (1973). Oligopolistic Reaction and the Transnational Enterprise, doi
  281. (1984). On establishment of joint ventures abroad',
  282. (1993). On the internationalization process of firms: A critical analysis', doi
  283. (2006). Online internationalisation, psychic distance reduction and the virtuality trap', doi
  284. (2003). Organizing for enterprise in China: what can we learn from the Chinese micro, small, and medium enterprise development experience', doi
  285. (2006). Outbound FDI increases by 123%',
  286. (2005). Outbound investments by Chinese Companies: the Chinese government approval regime', O'Melveny &Myers LLP Research Report,
  287. (1997). Outflows of capital from China', doi
  288. (1993). Outward direct investment by Indonesian firms: motivation and effects', doi
  289. (2003). Outward foreign direct investment from India: recent trends and patterns', doi
  290. (2006). Outward foreign direct investment protection and the effectiveness of Chinese BIT Practise', doi
  291. (1999). Outward foreign direct investment: a novel dimension of China's integration into the regional and global economy', doi
  292. (2004). Outward investment by Chinese MNCs: motivations and implications', doi
  293. (1995). Overcoming the liability of foreignness', doi
  294. (2000). Overseas investment by Chinese companies',
  295. (2004). Overseas R&D, knowledge sourcing, and patenting: an empirical study of Japanese R&D investment in the US', doi
  296. (2004). Ownership types and strategic groups in an emerging economy, doi
  297. (1990). Patent Statistics as Economic Indicators: A Survey', doi
  298. (1986). Patents and R and D: is there a lag? ', doi
  299. (2004). People's Republic of China and Its Neighbors: Partners or Competitors for Trade and Investment?
  300. (2005). Perspectives on how institutions matter', doi
  301. (2004). Perspectives on multinational enterprises in emerging economies', doi
  302. (2005). PetroKazakhstan Inc.: Canadian Court Approves China National Takeover',
  303. (2005). Pitfalls of a state-dominated financial system: The case of China', National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) Working Papers 11214, NBER: doi
  304. (1995). Policy and non-policy determinants of U. S. equity foreign direct investment', doi
  305. (2004). Policy elites in the political economy of China's exchange rate policymaking', doi
  306. (2003). Policy uncertainty and the sequence of entry by Japanese firms, 1980-1998', doi
  307. (2003). Political hazards, experience and sequential entry strategies: the international expansion of Japanese firms, 1980-1998', doi
  308. (2006). Politics in China since 1949: Legitimizing Authoritarian rule, doi
  309. (1998). PRC government restructuring continues',
  310. (2006). PRC outward direct investment: liberalization momentum consolidated',
  311. (2003). PRC outward investment: liberalization momentum builds',
  312. (2003). Private Entrepreneurs in China and Vietnam: Social and Political Functioning of Strategic Groups, doi
  313. (2004). Private firms encouraged to invest overseas'
  314. (2004). Private Sector Development in the People's Republic of China, Asian Development Bank Institute:
  315. (1990). Problems and developments in the core theory of international business', doi
  316. (2003). Psychic distance and internationalisation - evidence from Hong Kong firms',
  317. (2002). Purchasing power parity and the real exchange rate', doi
  318. (1995). Qualitative personal interviews in international business research: some lessons from a study of Hong Kong transnational corporations', doi
  319. (1985). Real exchange rate risk, expectations, and the level of foreign direct investment', doi
  320. (1995). Reappraising the eclectic paradigm in the age of alliance capitalism', doi
  321. (2006). Recent Chinese buyout activities and the implications for global architecture', National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) Working Paper 12072, NBER: doi
  322. (2003). Recent government reorganization in China',
  323. (2004). Reforms of China's foreign exchange regime and RMB exchangerate behaviour',
  324. (1989). Reforms of China's foreign trade system', doi
  325. (2002). Relational assets, networks, and international business activities', doi
  326. (2001). Report on the outline of the Tenth Five-Year Plan for National Economic and Social Development (Excerpts)', doi
  327. (2006). Research doi
  328. (2005). Research Interviewing: the range of techniques,
  329. (1997). Response to Geert Hofstede', doi
  330. (1996). Riding the waves of commerce: a test of Trompenaars' "model" of national culture differences', doi
  331. (1999). Risk measures in strategic management research: Auld Lang Syne? ', doi
  332. (2001). Russian direct investment abroad: history, motives, finance, control and planning',
  333. (2004). SAIC takes on Ssangyong Motors', China Economic Net ,
  334. (2005). Services (PRS)
  335. (2004). Shareholding structure, depoliticization and firm performance', doi
  336. (1996). Sharing Asia's Dynamism: Asian Direct Investment in the European Union,
  337. (1994). Social Network Analysis: Methods and Applications, doi
  338. (2003). Space, place, and transnationalism in the Chinese Diaspora', doi
  339. (2007). Special Report: The Global 2000,29
  340. (1980). Stages of development of industrial technology in a developing country: a model', doi
  341. (2005). Statistical Bulletin on Direct Overseas Investment of China
  342. (2002). Strategic implications of emerging Chinese multinationals: the Haier case study', doi
  343. (1994). Strategies and methodologies in international business and comparative management research', doi
  344. (1996). Strategy and motivation for PRC outward direct investments with particular reference to enterprises from the Pearl River Delta',
  345. (2005). Strategy research in emerging economies: challenging the conventional wisdom', doi
  346. (2001). Survey interviewing', doi
  347. (1975). Tanzania and China',
  348. (2004). Tax treaties and foreign direct investment: Potential versus performance', doi
  349. (2006). TCL forced to close units in Europe',
  350. (2005). TCL to expand overseas market with CNY8bn loans from CDB',
  351. (2005). Technological Superpower China, doi
  352. (2003). Technology sourcing versus technology exploitation: an analysis of US foreign direct investment flows', doi
  353. (1987). The adolescence of institutional theory', doi
  354. (2005). The business of governing business in China: institutions and norms of the emerging regulatory state', World Politics 57(January): doi
  355. (2001). The Business(es) of the Chinese state', doi
  356. (2002). The capitalist business system of China and its rationale', Asia Pacific Management Journal
  357. (2002). The challenge of globalisation for large Chinese firms', doi
  358. (2005). The challenges facing outbound Chinese M&A',
  359. (2002). The changing world of Chinese enterprises: An institutional perspective', doi
  360. (2006). The China Factor: The new drive is drawing increased attention and raising eyebrows in western circles',
  361. (2005). The Chinese approach to capital inflows: patterns and possible explanations', doi
  362. (2007). The Chinese Economy: Transitions and Growth, doi
  363. (2006). The competitive advantage of interconnected firms: an extension of the resource-based view', doi
  364. (2001). The complementarity between U. S. foreign direct investment stock and trade', doi
  365. (1983). The cultural relativity of organizational practices and theories', doi
  366. (2007). The determinants of Chinese outbound foreign direct investment', doi
  367. (2001). The determinants of foreign direct investment: sensitivity analyses of cross-country regressions', doi
  368. (1998). The determinants of Japanese foreign direct investment flows to the European Community, 1963-1990', doi
  369. (1999). The determinants of new FDI flows into the EC: A statistical comparison of the US and Japan', doi
  370. (2004). The determinants of outward foreign direct investment: a firm-level analysis of Indian manufacturing', doi
  371. (1969). The Determinants of U.
  372. (1999). The drivers of foreign direct investment into research and development: an empirical investigation', doi
  373. (1998). The dynamics of learning alliances', doi
  374. (2001). The eclectic (OLI) paradigm of international production: past, present and future', doi
  375. (2000). The eclectic paradigm as an envelope for economic and business theories of NNE activity', doi
  376. (1988). The eclectic paradigm of international production: a restatement and some possible extensions', doi
  377. (2004). The effect of corruption on Japanese foreign direct investment', doi
  378. (1988). The effect of national culture on the choice of entry mode', doi
  379. (2004). The effects of bilateral tax treaties on U. doi
  380. (2002). The elusive market: Privatization, politics and state-enterprise reform in China', doi
  381. (1982). The emergence of Third World Transnationals: Indian joint ventures overseas', doi
  382. (1997). The European internal market programme and inbound foreign direct investment', doi
  383. (2003). The evolution of US outward foreign direct investment in the pacific rim: a cross-time and country analysis, doi
  384. (1999). The foreign investment decision process', doi
  385. (1996). The geographical sources of competitiveness of firms: some results of a new Survey', doi
  386. (1994). The global distribution of overseas Chinese around 1990', Population and Development Review doi
  387. (1995). The globalization of technology: what remains of the product cycle model', doi
  388. (2006). The growth of China's private sector: a case study of Zhejiang province', doi
  389. (1996). The growth of the firm in planned economies in transition: Institutions, organizations, and strategic choice', doi
  390. (2003). The hidden dragons',
  391. (2000). The illicit asset stripping of Chinese state firms', doi
  392. (2004). The impact of bilateral investment treaties on foreign direct investment', doi
  393. (2005). The impact of China's FDI surge on FDI in South-East Asia: panel data analysis for 1986-2001',
  394. (2004). The impact of China's WTO accession on Southeast Asian foreign direct investment: trends and prospects', doi
  395. (2006). The impact of endogenous tax treaties on foreign direct investment: theory and evidence', doi
  396. (2002). The impact of inward FDI on the performance of Chinese manufacturing firms', doi
  397. (2006). The impact of regulatory quality on intra-foreign direct investment flows in the ASEAN markets', doi
  398. (1996). The in development path revisited: some emerging issues',
  399. (2004). The institutional environment for international business',
  400. (2004). The Interim Measures for the Administration of Examination and Approval of the Overseas Investment Projects,
  401. (2004). The International Law on Foreign Investment, 2°d revised edition, doi
  402. (1960). The International Operations of National Firms: a Study of Direct Investment, doi
  403. (1980). The international strategy of state-owned firms: an organizational process and politics perspective', doi
  404. (1990). The international success of developing country firms: Role of government-directed comparative advantage',
  405. (1999). The internationalisation of ethnics Chinese business firms from Southeast Asia: strategies, processes and competitive advantages', doi
  406. (2005). The internationalization of Chinese family enterprises and Dunning's eclectic MNE paradigm', doi
  407. (2005). The internationalization of Chinese firms: a case for theoretical extension? ', doi
  408. (2003). The internationalization of R&D of Chinese firms: a case of HW Ltd. ', presented at the
  409. (1975). The internationalization of the firm: four Swedish case studies', doi
  410. (1977). The internationalization process of the firm -a model of knowledge development and increasing foreign market commitment', doi
  411. (2001). The investment development path: a new empirical approach and some theoretical issues',
  412. (1988). The iron law of fiefs: bureaucratic failure and the problem of governance in the Chinese economic reforms', doi
  413. (1984). The Korean manufacturing multinationals', doi
  414. (2005). The launch of "China Africa Business Chamber"',
  415. (1988). The limits of explanation: testing the internalization theory of the multinational enterprise', doi
  416. (1999). The location of foreign direct investment: an empirical analysis', doi
  417. (1982). The location of overseas production and production of export by U. S. multinational firms', doi
  418. (1988). The locational determinants of direct investments among industrialized countries', doi
  419. (2002). The measurement of real effective exchange rates: a survey and applications to doi
  420. (2002). The motivations behind Chinese government-initiated industrial investments overseas', doi
  421. (2007). The Motives of Chinese Foreign Investments in the Baltic Sea Region', PanEuropean Institute Working Paper 7/2007, Turku School of Economics.
  422. (2006). The network dynamics of international new ventures', doi
  423. (2000). The New Institutional Economics: Taking stock, looking ahead', doi
  424. (1989). The new look of China's banks',
  425. (1980). The new multinationals: developing-country firms in international markets',
  426. (2002). The Notice of the Ministry of Foreign Trade and Economic Cooperation and the National Bureau of Statistics on printing and issuing Statistical system of direct overseas investment', Weijing maohe fa No 549,
  427. (2001). The obsolescing 'bargaining model? ' MNC-host developing country relations revisited', doi
  428. (1997). The old theory of economic policy and the new institutionalism', doi
  429. (1981). The optimal timing of a foreign direct investment', doi
  430. (2006). The overseas activities of China's national oil companies: rationale and outlook', doi
  431. (1994). The People's Republic of China: raising the bamboo screen through international management research',
  432. (2005). The persistence of distance? The impact of technology on MNE motivations for foreign investment', doi
  433. (1998). The political economy of a bilateral investment treaty', doi
  434. (2000). The political economy of China and Japan's relationship with Africa: a comparative perspective', The Pacific Review doi
  435. (1998). The political economy of transnational corporations: a study of the regionalization of Singaporean firms', doi
  436. (1982). The protection and promotion of foreign direct investment in developing countries: interests, interdependencies, intricacies', doi
  437. (1996). The psychic distance paradox', doi
  438. (1986). The pure theory of country risk', doi
  439. (1999). The regional distribution of foreign direct investment in China', doi
  440. (1983). The rise of multinationals from the Third World', doi
  441. (1979). The rise of third world multinationals',
  442. (2004). The role of culture in conducting trustworthy and credible qualitative business research in China', doi
  443. (2003). The role of skill endowments in the structure of U. S. outward foreign direct investment', doi
  444. (2004). The Sino-British economic and trade relationship: achievement, problems and prospects',
  445. (1986). The soft budget constrain', doi
  446. (2003). The State Asset Commission: a powerful new government body',
  447. (2005). The state's long apron strings',
  448. (1999). The strategy of Pacific Asian multinationals', doi
  449. (1983). The strength of weak ties: a network theory revisited', doi
  450. (1973). The strength of weak ties', doi
  451. (1983). The theoretical background',
  452. (1995). The Theory of the Growth of the Firm, 3`d edition, doi
  453. (1988). The Third Front: defense industrialization in the Chinese interior', doi
  454. (2001). The Tiananmen Papers, Public Affairs: doi
  455. (2000). The transaction cost advantage of guanxi-based business practices', doi
  456. (1971). The transnational enterprise in a multi currency world',
  457. (1974). The transnational spread of Japanese manufacturing investment since World War II', doi
  458. (2006). The trillion dollar question: China is grappling with how to deploy its foreign exchange riches',
  459. (2000). The WTO and China's ban on foreign investment in telecommunication services: a game-theoretic analysis', doi
  460. (2004). The WTO and entry modes in China', doi
  461. (2001). Theories of the multinational enterprise', doi
  462. (1996). Theory and method in international business research', doi
  463. (1992). Theory in international business',
  464. (1994). Third World Multinationals revisited: a research critique and future agenda', doi
  465. (1998). Third World Multinationals revisited: New developments and theoretical implications',
  466. (1982). Third World multinationals: a growing force in international relations', doi
  467. (1983). Third World Multinationals: The Rise of Foreign Investment from Developing Countries, doi
  468. (2006). Third World" multinationals revisited', doi
  469. (1990). tightens control of overseas investment by Chinese companies', East Asian Executive Reports October:
  470. (2002). Timing of entry in international market: an empirical study of U. S. fortune 500 firms in China', doi
  471. (2005). Tips for foreign vendors in Chinese M&A',
  472. (2006). Today's stateowned enterprises of China: Are they dying dinosaurs or dynamic dynamos? ', doi
  473. (2006). Top-down control: SASAC and the persistence of state ownership in China', Paper presented at the conference on "China and the World Economy" Leverhulme Centre for Research on Globalisation and Economic Policy,
  474. (2003). Toward a geocentric theory of multinational evolution: the implications from the Asian MNEs as latecomers', Asia Pacific
  475. (1994). Toward a theory of international new ventures', doi
  476. (1980). Toward an eclectic theory of international production: some empirical tests', doi
  477. (2006). Towards a new paradigm of development: implications for the determinants of international business', doi
  478. (2004). Towards a technology-seeking explanation of U. S. direct investment in the United Kingdom', doi
  479. (2002). Towards an institution-based view of business strategy', doi
  480. (1998). Towards an integrative framework of the internationalization of the firm',
  481. (1977). Trade, location of economic activity and the MNE: a search for an eclectic approach, ' doi
  482. (1999). Trade, location of economic activity and the transnational enterprise: A search for an eclectic approach', doi
  483. (1992). Transaction costs and the expansion of Third-World multinationals', doi
  484. (1994). Transnational corporations from Asian developing countries: Their characteristics and competitive edge',
  485. (1995). Transnationalization and outward investment: the case of Chinese firms',
  486. (1986). Transnationals from the Third World: Indian Firms Investing Abroad,
  487. (2003). Trends in foreign direct investment flows: a theoretical and empirical analysis', doi
  488. (2006). UK companies drive into Chinese markets',
  489. UNCTAD (2004b) World Investment Report 2004: The Shift Towards Services,
  490. (2004). Understanding and managing international growth of new products', doi
  491. (2005). Understanding the Process of Economic Change, doi
  492. (2003). Understanding the soft budget constrain', doi
  493. Urgent circular of the Ministry of Commerce on strengthening the statistical work of China's outward foreign direct investment',
  494. (2006). What did GLOBE really measure? Researchers' minds versus respondents' minds', doi
  495. (2001). What hurts most? G-3 exchange rate or interest rate volatility', NBER Working Paper Series 8535, National Bureau of Economic Research: doi
  496. (2003). Why does FDI go where it goes? New evidence from the transition economies', IMF Working Paper WP/031228, IlViF: Washington D.
  497. (2004). Why is property right protection lacking in China? An institutional explanation', doi
  498. (2006). World Investment Prospects to 2010: Boom or Backlash?, Special Edition,
  499. (2006). World Investment Report doi
  500. (1995). World Investment Report 1995: Transnational Corporations and Competitiveness, doi
  501. (1998). World Investment Report 1998: Trends and Determinants, doi
  502. (2002). World Investment Report 2002: Transnational Corporations and Export Competitiveness, doi
  503. (2006). World Trade Organisation (WTO) doi

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.