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Low-cost sanitation improvements in poor communities : conditions for physical sustainability

By Veronica de Barros Araujo Sarmento

Abstract

During the last decades of the twentieth century, alternative solutions for provision of sanitation were put into practice in Brazil. These unconventional programmes, which embrace not only innovative technologies but also new social approaches, raised concerns about community/institution participation in both the implementation and the operation & maintenance (O&M) of low-cost sanitation systems.\ud \ud The aim of the study reported herein was to identify and assess factors likely to influence the long-term sustainability of these low-cost sanitation programmes. For this, six sanitation programmes were studied regarding: the selection and design of the systems technologies; affordability and participation of the institutions on the\ud management of the programme; acceptability/satisfaction of the users; and, possible social/healthi mprovementsb rought to the communities. Data on these parameters were obtained by studying the documentation of the programmes, via interviews with stakeholders, observation of the systems' O&M schemes, technical inspection of the units and household questionnaire surveys.\ud \ud The capacity of institutions in complying with the O&M requirements of the sanitation technologies was of major importance for the sustainability of the programmes. As to the strategies for O&M, the six case studies provided a rich scenario with different administrative levels (community or state companies) and maintenance schemes( centralised,d ecentralisedo r participatory). Regardless \ud of the solution adopted, the lack of commitment of the institutions involved in the O&M scheme was among the\ud main factors negatively influencing the sustainability of the programmes.\ud \ud The four case studies based on condominial sewerage showed that enough experience had been accumulated for the reliable implementation of this technology. However, two important aspects of vulnerabilities were the lack of efficacy of the O&M schemes and deficiencies in users' awareness for the adequate utilisation of the systems.\ud \ud Educational programmes are essential for the process of implementation of the sanitation systems, and these were included in all programmes studied. Nevertheless, the continuity in the delivery of educational messages was frequently neglected, in spite of its importance for both the maintenance of the implemented systems and the improvements in the social and health conditions of the poor communities

Publisher: School of Civil Engineering (Leeds)
Year: 2001
OAI identifier: oai:etheses.whiterose.ac.uk:394

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Citations

  1. 1 he oss nership situation of the house is: ý Kcntr, ', Borrowed Other: D'Know/
  2. c hen did %ou our family) start to take part in the sanitation programme? VrCJ, i\ , C, ted ýkhen When the construction After see the system ,,
  3. Do make part in the residents association actin ities?
  4. Do you ha%e I\ at home: '
  5. For hugs Iring is the family bis ing in the house'' anos meses LiTIONH-Socionomic Aspects
  6. hat is the honte treatment for drinking Hater? ýý+nr Boll Filter Buy mineral water Use Chlorine Other: D'Know/D'
  7. l)o y ou hale IN at home? 1) "
  8. llos did sou lour family) become assare about the sanitation programme ? kr, rdenu .s oclatron Local Church Neit7hhors Prr(r. ture tail Other: D' Know! D' Answer
  9. lluss ntrn% people is li%in^ io the house: '
  10. NN hat is the source of the Hater used bý the family ? (r\ll't NA i .. I h, 'u- e (OMPESA - yard tap Well Collect from neightrlur Other. -D'Know/D'
  11. Noss mans people lis ing in the household is emplo%ed ?
  12. rtion it the rntrr%it-ý%v . %ithin the famil :
  13. (1998). Sarmento URL - 28 Minist&rio da Saüde/FNS/CENEPI
  14. Where is the solid Aaste deposited ? l ++llr: ted on on the main
  15. WW hat is the frequency of Hater shortage? 'Know/ {tare \lonthk Weekly ther. I ý' An,;

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